An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.
Palmer-WG; Scholz-RC; Moorman-WJ
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1983 Mar; 44(3):184-189
A sampler was developed to collect respirable components of emissions from iron (7439896) foundry casting operations. The sampler consisted of a cyclone cleaner to remove particles larger than 10 microns, a scrubbber in which particles smaller than 10 microns contacted finely divided water droplets, and an entrainment separator to remove particle and droplet agglomerates from the air stream. Iron foundry mold emissions were sampled at a rate of 100 cubic feet per minute. Particle collection efficiency rates were determined by collecting inlet and outlet samples at isokinetic sampling rates, as specified by Environmental Protection Agency Method 5 guidelines, and comparing particle size distribution with a cascade impactor. Particle sizing tests were performed with clean water in the scrubber, and after an 8 hour sampling cycle during which the water had accumulated about 2 milligrams per liter of contaminants. Over 50 percent by weight of particulate matter in the inlet air stream was less than 0.5 micron in diameter. The efficiency of the sampler increased with increasing aerodynamic diameter of particles, from 30 percent at less than 0.3 micron diameter to 80 percent at 15 microns. Fractional removal efficiency was not significantly affected by contaminated water in the scrubber.
NIOSH-Author; Industrial-emissions; Industrial-processes; Emission-sources; Sampling-methods; Animal-studies; Toxic-effects; Cast-iron-alloys; Foundries; Cascade-impactors; Airborne-particles; Air-quality-monitoring
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal