Review, Summarization, And Evaluation Of Literature To Support The Update And Revision Of Criteria Documents. III. Ammonia.
NIOSH 1977 Dec:35 pages
Hazards of ammonia (7664417) are reviewed. An update is provided for NIOSH criteria documents on ammonia. Methods for determining ammonia concentrations in ambient air are discussed. Sampling is usually accomplished by passing the gas through an air impinger that contains a small volume of aqueous acid; the ammonia is thereby converted to an ammonium (14798039) ion. A particle filter is used to distinguish between ammonia and the ammonium ion. Methods are also used to determine ammonia in air directly. Analysis is performed by gas liquid chromatography, reaction with hypochlorite (14380611) and bromide (24959679) ion to form nitrite (14797650) ion, or spectrophotometric determination of ammonia reacted with reagents. Effects of human exposures are cited; they include burns, particularly of the eyes, and damage to the respiratory tissues. Experimental studies in humans are described in which subjects were exposed to ammonia over 6 weeks. Results indicate that there is an acclimation process in which increased tolerance to the irritant effects of ammonia occurs. Animal studies show a median lethal concentration of 7,338 parts per million (ppm) in rats and 4,837ppm in mice for acute exposures. Safety measures in the work environment are considered. Tight fitting goggles and rubber gloves and protective garments are recommended, as are water supplies for irrigation of accidental exposure and positioning of workers away from direct access to lines or couplings.
NIOSH-Contract; Safety-research; Industrial-chemicals; Industrial-safety; Aqueous-solutions; Occupational-hazards; Employee-exposure; Toxic-effects; Contract-210-76-0167;
7664-41-7; 14798-03-9; 14380-61-1; 24959-67-9; 14797-65-0;
NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland