Occupational exposure to estrogens: problems and approaches.
Zaebst-DD; Tanaka-S; Haring-M
Estrogens in the environment: proceedings of the Symposium on Estrogens in the Environment, Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A., September 10-12, 1979. McLachlan JA, ed. New York: Elsevier/North Holland, Inc. 1980 Jan; :377-389
A walk through survey of 13 pharmaceutical companies was conducted by NIOSH. These companies synthesized or used natural and synthetic estrogens. The survey involved an evaluation of the environmental situation at each site. A total of 181 cases of hyperestrogenism was reported by the 13 companies during a 38 year time span. These cases included both male and females. Symptoms ranged from nipple sensitivity to overt gynecomastia or irregular menstruation. The walk through survey indicated that a substantial effort was made to improve environmental conditions and to protect employees. The most hazardous operations were isolated with separate air supply and exhaust systems. A closed system to transfer dry powders was conducted with pneumatic or gravity flow closed pipes and conduits. The use of fluid bed dryers and in-situ drying eliminated the dusty procedure of milling. Strict work practices were instituted and personal protective equipment such as disposable clothing, air supplied hoods, and full air supplied suits were available to employees. The authors conclude that in general, the work practices at these companies are appropriate; however, symptoms of hyperestrogenism still occur, indicating the need for in depth industrial hygiene, medical, and epidemiological studies.
Occupational-exposure; Employee-exposure; Health-hazards; Work-environment; Industrial-hygiene; Safety-practices; Control-methods; Toxic-effects; Pharmaceutical-industry
Estrogens in the environment: proceedings of the Symposium on Estrogens in the Environment, Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A., September 10-12, 1979