Biological, epidemiological, and toxicological characteristics of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) are reviewed. The chemical nomenclature, trade names, and synonyms of 1,1,1-trichloroethane are cited. Physical properties such as flammability, chemical reactions, molecular weight, melting and boiling points are listed. Production of the chemical, in 1,000 pounds, is cited as having been 260,000 in 1967 and 575,000 in 1976. The main United States producers of 1,1,1-trichloroethane are noted. The chemical is used as a solvent for cleaning metal and electrical parts, in aerosol decongestants, and in adhesives and polishes. The value considered to be the toxic limit proposed by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists in 1974 is cited as 350 parts per million (ppm) and refers to a time weighted concentration for an 8 hour work day and 40 hour work week. NIOSH is reported to have recommended a ceiling concentration of 350ppm for a 15 minute exposure. Cases of poisoning in humans are reported, as are laboratory exposure studies of toxic effects in humans and animals based on varying concentrations and routes of exposure. A table citing median lethal doses in dogs, rats, and mice is presented.
Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare