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Occupational leukoderma: in vivo and in vitro studies.
Current Concepts in Cutaneous Toxicity: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Cutaneous Toxicity, Washington, D.C., May 9-11, 1979. Drill VA, Lazar P, eds., New York: Academic Press, 1980 Jan; :213-220
Studies of occupationally induced leukoderma are reviewed. Leukoderma is reported in many countries. Substances implicated include monobenzyl-ether of hydroquinone (123319), p-tertiary-butyl- phenol (98544) (TBP), p-tert-butylcatechol (98293) (TBC), hydroquinone, and the octyl, nonyl, and phenyl phenols. Experiments are cited using cats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, mice, and goldfish. In- vivo studies are discussed that include oral administration of hydroquinone and TBP, parenteral injection of hydroquinone, TBP, and p-octylphenol (140669), and topical application of chemicals to guinea-pigs and mice. A variety of in-vitro cell systems has been studied, including rat liver cells and mitochondria, human erythrocytes, and guinea-pig epidermis. TBC was evaluated in melanocytes from the ears of guinea-pigs. The results of clinical and laboratory investigations are discussed, with evidence given for chemical causation of occupational leukoderma. Chemicals responsible for depigmentation of skin include hydroquinone, monobenzyl-ether of hydroquinone, phenolic derivatives such as hydroxyanisole (26638039), TBP, TBC, p-tertiary-amyl-phenol (80466), p-cresol (106445), mercaptoamines, physostigmine (57476), diisopropyl- fluorophosphate (55914), butylated-hydroxytoluene (128370), and butylated-hydroxyanisole (25013165). The author concludes that the probable mechanism of action of the alkyl phenols is a toxic effect on functional melanocytes. In in-vitro studies, abnormal cytologic changes are seen that result in the death of melanocytes.
NIOSH-Grant; Animal-studies; Cytopathology; Toxicopathology; Biological-effects; Industrial-chemicals; Occupational-dermatitis; Biological-factors; Employee-exposure; Health-hazards
Dermatology University of California Department of Dermatology San Francisco, Calif 94143
123-31-9; 98-54-4; 98-29-3; 140-66-9; 26638-03-9; 80-46-6; 106-44-5; 57-47-6; 55-91-4; 128-37-0; 25013-16-5
Drill VA; Lazar P
Current Concepts in Cutaneous Toxicity: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Cutaneous Toxicity, Washington, D.C., May 9-11, 1979
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California
Page last reviewed: February 11, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division