Review, Summarization, And Evaluation Of Literature To Support The Update And Revision Of Criteria Documents. VIII. Vinyl Chloride.
NIOSH 1977 Mar:95 pages
Recent literature on occupational health standards for vinyl- chloride (75014) (VC) is reviewed. Analytical methods are discussed. The NIOSH recommended method of sampling and analysis is described. This method can be improved either by modifying the carbon-disulfide desorption procedure or by using a thermal desorption method. Alternative analytical methods are summarized. The human effects of VC exposure are discussed. The clinical symptoms of VC poisoning are described. Epidemiological surveys and case reports are presented. Epidemiological surveys have confirmed the existence of excess liver cancer mortality among workers exposed to VC. More than 38 cases of hepatic angiosarcoma attributed to VC have occurred since 1974. Animal studies of the pharmacodynamics and metabolism, biochemical effects, toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of VC are considered. Prolonged inhalation at concentrations of 50 parts per million has caused cancers in various animal species. Positive mutagenic results have occurred in Salmonella-typhimurium incubated with VC in the presence of liver microsomes. Work practices and engineering controls are discussed. Current techniques of medical surveillance are described. Long term bioassays in several species need to be conducted to determine if there is a safe dose of VC. Research is also needed to determine possible effects of VC on reproductive functions.
NIOSH-Contract; Safety-research; Hepatotoxicity; Industrial-chemicals; Biological-effects; Health-hazards; Animal-studies; Toxic-effects; Contract-210-76-0167;
NIOSH, Rockville, Maryland