Review, summarization, and evaluation of literature to support the update and revision of criteria documents. V. Toluene.
NIOSH 1977 Jan; :1-29
Recent literature on occupational health standards for toluene (108883) is reviewed. Analytical methods are summarized. Human responses to toluene exposure are discussed. Kidney dysfunction as well as neurological, hepatic, and hematological disorders can result from toluene exposure. Experimental human inhalation studies are summarized. Alveolar concentrations of 60 parts per million (ppm) cause impairment of mental functions such as reaction abilities and perception rates. Alveolar concentrations of this magnitude result from breathing air containing 200ppm toluene during light physical activity. Experimental animal studies are presented. The tissue distribution, metabolic and physiological effects, and acute effects resulting from toluene exposure in various animal species are considered. Work practices and engineering controls are examined. Medical surveillance of occupational exposures is considered. It is noted that urinary hippuric-acid (495692) excretion is not a reliable measure of toluene exposure. The measurement of serum electrolytes or urinary acidification is recommended as an alternative medical screening technique.
NIOSH-Contract; Safety-research; Health-protection; Toxic-effects; Animal-studies; Industrial-chemicals; Health-hazards; Toxic-vapors; Contract-210-76-0167
Final Contract Report
NIOSH, Rockville, Maryland