Review, Summarization, And Evaluation Of Literature To Support The Update And Revision Of Criteria Documents. III. Ammonia.
NIOSH 1976 Oct:32 pages
Recent scientific literature concerning hazards associated with exposure to ammonia (7664417) are critically reviewed and evaluated. To provide an update for the NIOSH criteria document for ammonia, results of published and unpublished research appearing since the publication of the original document are considered. Analytical techniques for determination of ammonia in air are discussed. Emphasis is placed on refinements made possible through recent technological advances which allow for improvements in air sampling and analysis. Results of human exposure to ammonia are described, and summaries of human and animal experiments are presented. Irritation and respiratory distress are well known effects of exposure to ammonia. Data suggesting that previously unrecognized disruptions of normal biochemical and neurologic processes may occur in addition to these effects is discussed. Several studies investigating the dose response parameters for respiratory effects and mucous membrane irritation are presented. These studies suggest that exposure to ammonia vapor above 50 parts per million may not cause significant mucous membrane irritation or decreased respiratory function. However, results from animal studies indicate that complicating factors may arise due to biochemical alterations produced by excessive exposures; the nature of the detriment to health posed by disruption of enzymatic, hematologic, and neurologic parameters is unknown. Work practices and engineering controls to minimize exposure to ammonia are also recommended. The author concludes that experimental verification of the chronic effects of ammonia exposure is required to determine if the recommended threshold limit is adequate for worker protection. Several types of research needs are suggested.
NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-76-0167; Pollution; Poisons; Fumes; Respiratory-gas-analysis; Pulmonary-function-tests; Biochemical-analysis; Biological-monitoring; Physiological-testing;
NTIS Accession No.
NIOSH, Rockville, Maryland, NTIS-PB83-232-033