The industrial environment - its evaluation and control, 3rd edition. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 74-117, 1973 Jan; :681-691
Safety in the work environment is discussed. An accident is defined as contact with a source of energy above the threshold limit of the body or structure. Therefore, safety programs can be directed at the pre contact, contact, or post contact stages. The loss from accidents, in terms of both human and economic costs, is significant. Two major sources of work related injuries are handling objects and falls. In the pre contact stage, emphasis should be placed on such activities as good facility inspections, safety rules and regulations, safety meetings and training, personnel practices, job analysis and observation, personal communications, and work standards. The use and application of personal protective equipment is the best example of the contact stage of accident control. Two major post contact measures to control accident losses are emergency care and accident investigation. The measurement of safety program effectiveness occurs in three categories: measurements of consequence, measurements of cause, and measurements of control.
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