Work related illness, injuries, and death are reviewed. The NIOSH annual report to Congress on occupational safety and health as required by Public Law 91-596 is presented. The NIOSH mission is described: to provide for research into occupational safety and health and to develop techniques for dealing with the problems, and to explore ways to discover latent disease and establish causal connections between disease and work in environmental conditions. The major work related diseases for 1982 are cited, and include: occupational lung disease; musculoskeletal injuries; cancer; amputations, fractures, eye loss, lacerations, and traumatic death; cardiovascular diseases; reproductive disorders; neurotoxic disorders; noise induced loss of hearing; dermatologic conditions; and psychological disorders. Research efforts in each of the areas are cited. Surveillance projects being conducted under several programs are described. Control techniques for occupational hazards are outlined for comprehensive safety recommendations, respirators, particulate control, and ventilation techniques. Analytical techniques are considered. Procedures for health hazard evaluations and training and work force development are assessed.