Mechanisms of environmental agents by class associated with adverse male reproductive outcomes.
Reproduction: the new frontier in occupational and environmental health research: proceedings of the Fifth Annual RMCOEH Occupational and Environmental Health Conference, Park City, Utah, April 5-8, 1983. Lockey JE, Lemasters GK, Keye WR Jr., eds. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1984 Sep; :335-361
The mechanisms of adverse male reproductive outcomes associated with exposure to environmental agents are reviewed. The substances examined herein include: saturated halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as chloroform, carbon-tetrachloride, dibromochloropropane, and ethylene-dibromide; unsaturated forms such as vinyl-chloride, chloroprene, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene; halogenated cyclic hydrocarbons such as chlorinated benzenes, halogenated biphenyls, and halogenated insecticides, with this latter category including DDT, kepone, and lindane, as well as epoxy class compounds such as ethylene-oxide and its cyclic tetramer; and glycol ether class compounds such as ethylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether. While the effects produced by exposure to these substances have been studied in animals, and while many of the substances cited have been found to produce testicular histopathologies such as degenerative changes in the germinal epithelium, decreased testosterone concentrations, reduced testes weights, atrophy of the testes and accessory glands, decreased sperm counts, testicular degeneration of the seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells, marked decreases in steroidogenic enzyme concentrations, the induction of heritable translocations, and both partial and total sterility, researchers have so far made few attempts to isolate the influence exerted by these substances on males alone. The author concludes that the data obtained to date is so inadequate that even the prediction of potential hazards, much less the detection of mechanisms of action, is difficult, if not impossible. It is further concluded that age at time of exposure may be a critical factor, with prepubertal animals being at greater risk. The author recommends that structure/activity relationships, common metabolisms and common metabolites, sensitivity values as a function of age, patterns and degrees of recovery, species related differences, and target organ threshold values be further studied in order to eventually clarify the mechanisms of the testicular toxicity of environmental agents.
NIOSH-Grant; Reproductive-system-disorders; Chemical-analysis; Biological-effects; Analytical-instruments; Health-care-facilities; Analytical-methods; Environmental-factors; Physiology; Environmental-health-monitoring
Environmental Health University of Cincinnati 3223 Eden Avenue Cincinnati, Ohio 45267
Lockey-JE; Lemasters-GK; Keye-WR Jr.
Reproduction: the new frontier in occupational and environmental health research: proceedings of the Fifth Annual RMCOEH Occupational and Environmental Health Conference, Park City, Utah, April 5-8, 1983
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio