NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search
Environmental levels and urine content of workers exposed to azo dyes.
Boeniger MF; Lowry LK; Tolos WP; Nony CR; Bowman M
Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1980 Apr; :1-20
The industrial environment of worker exposure to benzidine (92875) was examined. Personal and environmental air samples were taken in two textile dyeing and finishing facilities, a leather tanning facility, and a specialty paper company. Two benzidine dye manufacturing facilities were also surveyed. Bulk samples of benzidine dyes were analyzed for the presence of residual free benzidine; liquid chromatography was used. Urine samples were collected from 38 exposed employees and were analyzed by a colorimetric method and confirmed by thin layer chromatography. Some specimens were analyzed by electron capture gas chromatography. In dye manufacture workers, no benzidine was detected, but monoacetylbenzidine (3366618) (MAB) was detected in two workers. The highest exposures were found in the second dye manufacturing facility, where all urine samples contained benzidine or MAB. Bulk samples of dyes contained less than 20 parts per million (ppm) benzidine as amine or salt. In the first textile facility, benzidine or MAB was found in three of seven workers monitored, and urinary concentrations of aromatic amines were elevated. Bulk dye samples contained 1 and 4ppm benzidine. In the second textile facility, none of the urine samples contained benzidine; one contained MAB. Daily worker inhalation exposures were less than 1.5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), whereas bulk samples contained up to 20ppm benzidine. In the leather workers, no benzidine or MAB was detected in urine. Low concentrations of benzidine or MAB were found in the urine of four of seven paper workers. Comparison of airborne exposures showed that total airborne particulate concentrations of 3 to 5mg/m3 resulted in the detection of benzidine or its metabolites in urine, although exposures to 1.1mg/m3 for a full shift resulted in benzidine appearing in some workers' urine. The authors conclude that benzidine dyes can be used in the work place without detecting benzidine or its metabolites in the urine.
NIOSH-Author; Industrial-chemicals; Occupational-exposure; Employee-exposure; Paper-industry; Leather-finishing; Medical-monitoring; Urinalysis
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Page last reviewed: December 28, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division