A modeling technique to evaluate community and occupational airborne lead exposure in and around a primary lead smelter.
NIOSH 1982 Jun; :1-125
A model was developed for the evaluation of source reduction schemes for fugitive emissions and upset conditions for primary lead (7439921) smelters at the Bunker Hill Company, Kellog, Idaho. A computer assisted cartographic model was used to empirically relate ambient lead and cadmium (7440439) particulate concentrations to known emissions estimates (particularly for fugitive emissions) in order to meet the OSHA standard for industrial lead exposure, and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for lead which is more stringent than the OSHA standard. In order to comply with OSHA standards, at least 75 percent of uncontrolled fugitive emissions in the Highline area and 65 percent of those in the blast furnace area had to be reduced. Severe meteorological conditions and emissions excursions were identified as the two main factors influencing lead content in the environment. The smelter was closed down due to economic considerations. The author concludes that the factory, particularly the Highline area, is presently antiquated. The blast furnace upset must be eliminated for any type of compliance. Recommendations are for demolition of the obsolete portions and replacement with up to date processes in order to assure compliance and for operational efficiency and business effectiveness.
NIOSH-Author; Smelters; Air-quality-measurement; Meteorology; Mathematical-models; Analytical-models; Metals; Cadmium-compounds; Lead-compounds
R. A. Taft Laboratory, NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio, Request No. 82-20