Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 83-114, 1983 Jun; :1-228
Forty United States facilities involved in manufacture of azo dyes (SIC-2865), fish processing (SIC-2077), rubber (SIC-3069), tanning (SIC-3111), detergents (SIC-2841), and surfactants (SIC-2843) were investigated to determine N-nitroso compounds in the environment. A gas chromatograph and high pressure liquid chromatograph system was used with sample detection by a TEA Analyzer designed for the detection of subnanogram amounts of N-nitroso compounds. The prime criteria for the selection of an industry to be surveyed were the possible formation of N-nitroso compounds from their precursors, and the use of products suspected of being contaminated with these compounds. N-nitroso compounds were found in 25 of the 40 facilities including at least 1 facility in each of the 7 industries. The highest concentration of airborne nitrosamines was 250 micrograms per cubic meter N-nitrosomorpholine (59892) in a rubber facility. The highest concentration in a bulk sample was almost 5 milligrams per milliliter N-nitrosodimethylamine (62759). The two industries of major concern were rubber and tanning. The authors conclude that removal of dimethylamine-sulfate (21249138) from the dehairing process in tanneries would greatly reduce the N-nitrosodimethylamine concentrations. The rubber industry requires substitution and engineering controls to reduce airborne concentrations of nitrosamines.
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