Effective control technologies used in the pulp and paper industry (SIC-2621) to prevent or minimize worker exposure to toxic chemicals and harmful physical stresses were evaluated and documented. The study included a literature review, preliminary mill surveys, and detailed surveys of selected major unit processes. The indepth surveys were conducted at 18 mills and resulted in 40 survey reports for one or more mill unit processes. These reports related to wood preparation, sulfite pulping and stock washing, Kraft pulping and stock washing, Kraft chemical recovery, multistage bleaching, bleach chemical preparation, and paper production. Over 1000 air samples were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of the control systems associated with these mill processes. The major workplace contaminants studied and methods for sampling and analysis were described. Among various findings, the authors note that chlorine (7782505) and chlorine-dioxide (10049044) concentrations were frequently high in chlorine-dioxide generator buildings, particularly during start ups, shut downs, and following collection of quality control samples.
NIOSH, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, Ohio