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Respirator canister evaluation for selected organic vapors and sorbent performance against vinyl chloride.

Stampfer JF; Weeks RW; Ettinger R
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 1980 Oct; :1-37
A commercial respirator canister was evaluated against nine hazardous organic vapors. The canister was challenged at 50 times the threshold limit value for chloroform (67663), benzene (71432), epichlorohydrin (106898), acrylonitrile (107131), propargyl-alcohol (107197), 1,2-dibromoethane (106934), and acrolein (107028), and at 1 part per million (ppm) for chloromethyl-methyl-ether (107302) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (62759). Tests were run at 80 or 15 percent relative humidity (RH), at a flow of approximately 49 standard liters per minute. Tests were continued until breakthrough by 1 percent of the challenge atmosphere or for 16 hours. In a second experiment, activated charcoal and Ambersorb-347 were tested as respirator sorbents against vinyl-chloride (75014). Small beds of the sorbents were challenged with 10ppm vinyl-chloride at wet and dry RHS, at a flow of 70 standard cubic centimeters per minute. Absorbed vinyl-chloride was measured at 1, 5, and 10 percent penetration. After 16 hours, no break through was detected for epichlorohydrin or acrylonitrile at the dry RH, or for propargyl- alcohol, 1,2-dibromoethane, acrolein, or N-nitrosodimethylamine at either RH. Breakthroughs occurred for epichlorohydrin and acrylonitrile at the wet RH and for chloroform and benzene both RHs after 274 to 765 minutes. Chloromethyl-methyl-ether achieved 30 percent penetration at the wet RH after only 34 minutes. Charcoal absorbed 2.0 to 2.5 milligrams vinyl-chloride per gram sorbent (mg/g) at the dry RH and 0.52 to 0.58mg/g at the wet RH. Ambersorb- 347 absorbed 0.68 to 1.64mg/g at the dry RH and 0.36 to 0.44mg/g at the wet RH, but had a 50 percent greater packing density than charcoal. The authors conclude that the respirator canister provides protection for 4 to 16 hours against all compounds tested except chloromethyl-methyl-ether. Results with the chloromethyl- methyl-ether indicate that the NIOSH testing and certification procedures for canisters and cartridges should be changed. Both sorbents are about equally useful against vinyl-chloride.
Interagency Agreement IA-79-13; Monomers; Chemical-properties; Laboratory-testing; Inhalants; Toxic-materials; Air-purification; Safety-measures; Respiratory-equipment; Absorptiometry
67-66-3; 71-43-2; 106-89-8; 107-13-1; 107-19-7; 106-93-4; 107-02-8; 107-30-2; 62-75-9; 75-01-4
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Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, New Mexico
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Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico
Page last reviewed: February 11, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division