Environmental levels and urine content of workers exposed to azo dyes.
Boeniger MF; Lowry LK; Tolos WP; Nony CR; Bowman M
Proceedings of the first NCI/EPA/NIOSH collaborative workshop: progress on joint environmental and occupational cancer studies, May 6-8, 1980, Rockville, Maryland. Kraybill HF, Blackwood IC, Freas NB, eds. Washington, DC: National Cancer Institute, Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1980 May; :775-797
Worker exposure to azo dyes derived from benzidine (92875) and urinary excretion of benzidine and its metabolites were studied. Environmental exposures to benzidine were determined from personal and bulk air samples, and work practices were observed in two textile dyeing and finishing facilities, a leather tanning facility, a specialty paper company, and two benzidine dye manufacturing facilities. Urine samples from 38 employees potentially exposed to benzidine derived dyes were analyzed. Urine of 12 of the 38 workers monitored contained benzidine or monoacetylbenzidine (3366618) in quantities ranged from 1 part per billion (ppb) to 112ppb benzidine and up to 590ppb monoacetylbenzidine. Total airborne particulate concentrations of benzidine above 3 to 5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/CuM) often resulted in the detection of benzidine, its metabolites, or elevated nonspecific aromatic amines in the urine of exposed workers. Exposure to airborne particulates less than 3mg/CuM were associated less often with aromatic amines in the urine. Full shift airborne exposures as low as 1.1mg/CuM resulted in considerable urinary benzidine. The author concludes that it is unlikely that benzidine derived dyes can be used in a sufficiently controlled and safe manner.
Coloring-materials; Metabolites; Dyes; Industrial-hygiene; Health-surveys
Kraybill HF; Blackwood IC; Freas NB
Proceedings of the first NCI/EPA/NIOSH collaborative workshop: progress on joint environmental and occupational cancer studies, May 6-8, 1980, Rockville, Maryland