Various approaches for fostering self protective measures against workplace hazards are reviewed. Techniques for eliciting, shaping, and maintaining specific worker behaviors of safe working practices and self protective measures are described. Examples of the directive type approach are presented. Training is discussed as the universal approach and important contingent reinforcement strategies and principles are explained. Promotional techniques for achieving attitude change and increased awareness of self protective behavior are described as part of the nondirected approach. Communication, incentive, and management style factors are discussed. Supportive evidence for the various approaches as derived from field studies is evaluated. The authors conclude training remains the fundamental method for effecting self protection against workplace hazards, while contingent reinforcement strategies have great potential for shaping self protective behaviors. A combination of directive and nondirective strategies represents an optimum approach.
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