NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

Evaluation of the effects of handle placement in a static holding task.

Coury-BG; Drury-CG
NIOSH 1981 Jan; :1-190
The effects of handle placement on the ease of holding a rectangular box were studied using 10 male adult subjects. All boxes employed were 400 millimeters (mm) in width, between 400 to 500mm in length and height, and either 10 or 15 kilograms in weight. The subjects raised boxes with different handle positions and held them for 30 seconds. After each trial, the subjects evaluated the associated discomforts and stresses. During each trial, the subjects' heart rates (HR) were measured and the handle angle and forces were determined. Friction forces (FF) were related to handle placement, with the greatest force observed when the handles were placed high on the box and the least force noted when the handles were directly below the box's center of gravity. The tendency of the box to move away from the holder was related to handle placement in a fashion similar to FF. Mean force at the handles was significantly influenced in the same manner as FF by box weight and handle placement. Box angle was at a minimum with the handles located higher on the box than for FF. HR was highest at extreme handle positions and was decreased at the middle positions. Perceived exertion and body part discomfort were affected by handle position in the same way as was HR. The authors conclude that the criteria for the best handle positions include having one handle located in the lower front quadrant and the other along the box's front plane.
NIOSH-Grant; Ergonomics; Biomechanics; Human-factors-engineering; Task-performance; Equipment-design
Industrial Engineering S U N Y - at Buffalo 342 Bell Hall Amherst, N Y 14260
Publication Date
Document Type
Final Grant Report
Funding Amount
Funding Type
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
NIOSH Division
Source Name
NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, Ohio, 190 pages, 96 references
Performing Organization
State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division