Safety techniques in the use of engine lathes and production turret lathes are discussed. Literature is searched to identify safety problems and to learn of existing or proposed methods for reducing the risk of injury. Hazards are analyzed to identify injury potential situations in actual machine shops. The major machine shop types evaluated are a job shop, a tool and experimental shop, a maintenance shop, and a manufacturing production shop. For injury data analysis, 538 workmen's compensation reports are used and injuries are categorized by accident type, similar characteristics within the type, and development of fault free diagrams for groups of injuries. Countermeasures related to the events in the accident scenarios are developed to reduce workers risk of injuries. Engineering, training, and management policy countermeasures are described. OSHA and American National Standard Safety Requirements Standards are evaluated and recommendations are made for worker training, operation, proper tools, lathe design, and rules for standards implementation. The authors conclude that this study has been effective in identifying aspects of metal cutting lathes and operations that can cause injuries, and developing countermeasures to reduce workers' risk. The authors suggest future research for the development of lathe guards that provide fewer work flow restrictions, awareness devices to warn of chuck and holding device hazards, and improved chuck design.
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, NIOSH, Division of Safety Research