A NIOSH assessment of the occupational health status of workers in the direct and indirect coal liquefaction industry (SIC-1321) is presented. The technological status of this industry, including generic characteristics of liquefaction technology, commercial application, and government sponsored programs and technology is reviewed. Potentially hazardous substances in coal liquefaction, including sulfur, ammonia, phenols and tar acids, tars, metal carbonyls and organic nitrogen, are characterized. Occupational health related studies, including technology specific investigations, epidemiological and toxicological studies, and studies on industrial constituents and surrogate materials are reviewed. Industrial hygiene characterizations are also considered. Occupational health assessment requirements regarding characterization needs, area, personal, and body-burden characterization, research requirement in occupational health effects, and the development of medical surveillance protocols are described.
NIOSH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Morgantown, West Virginia, 74 pages, 114 references