The biological effects of electromagnetic fields were discussed, including exposure standards, bioeffects research, electromagnetic field effects on humans, and federal microwave health and safety programs. The authors note the process of setting international exposure standards is becoming more complicated. International scientists and engineers are usually willing to exchange ideas in the microwave bioeffects area. Western researchers are reporting data on low level microwave effects in animals similar to that reported by Russian and some East European scientists, although, some clinical findings show serious differences. Federal involvement is fragmented and complex in non-ionizing radiation regulation and research.