Special occupational hazard review for benzidine-based dyes.
Gregory-AR; Bamel-IP; Mackison-F
Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 80-109, 1980 Jan; :1-66
Information concerning the carcinogenicity and metabolism of benzidine (92875) based dyes is reviewed. Research has indicated that some of the dyes have induced tumors in animals; occupational exposure to benzidine based dye is related to an increased incidence of bladder cancer in workers; the dyes are metabolized in animals to the carcinogen benzidine; and the enzyme azoreductase, which breaks down these dyes to benzidine, is present in animals and humans. The carcinogenic impurities of 4-aminobiphenyl (92671) and 2,4- diaminoazobenzene (495545) were found in one benzidine based dye and may contribute to the dye's carcinogenic potential. The authors conclude that all benzidine based dyes should be recognized as potential human carcinogens. NIOSH recommends that the production, use, storage, packaging, and distribution of all benzidine based dyes be discontinued in light of present evidence of potential carcinogenic risks.
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Criteria-Document; Carcinogens; Metabolic-effects; Dyestuffs; Tumorigens; Enzymatic-activity; Materials-handling; Risk-factors; Aromatic-hydrocarbons
92-87-5; 92-67-1; 495-54-5
Numbered Publication; Criteria Document
NTIS Accession No.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health