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Clinical and experimental studies of distal axonopathy -- a frequent form of brain and nerve damage produced by environmental chemical hazards.
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 1979 Jan; :1-34
Clinical and pathological studies of nervous system degeneration (distal dying back axonopathy) in man and experimental animals produced by acrylamide-monomer (79061), and hydrocarbon compounds (hexacarbon) are reviewed. Human distal axonopathies include toxic neuropathies induced by the industrial chemicals: acrylamide, n- hexane (110543), cresyl-phosphate (1330785), arsenic (7440382), carbon disulfide (75150), and the pharmaceutical agents clioquinol (130267), nitrofurantoin (67209), and isoniazid (54853). Among the results of the studies were a reappraisal of the dying back hypothesis, recognition of irreversible subclinical and clinical effects of distal axonopathies on the human central nervous system, a morphological rationale for the wide variety of previously enigmatic clinical phenomena in the human toxic neuropathies, and strong support for the usefulness of neuropathology in the screening of chemicals for neurotoxicity. The authors conclude that it has not been determined with certainty that morphological assays are more sensitive than behavioral testing for detecting the earliest signs of neurotoxicity in the distal axonopathies and that a recently begun collaborative study of behavioral analysis and a simultaneous morphological assay of the nervous system at various stages of intoxication in acrylamide treated rats might clarify the relative uses and merits of these techniques in detecting evidence of neurotoxicity in the distal axonopathies.
NIOSH-Grant; Neurotoxic-effects; Pharmaceutical-chemicals; Toxic-substances; Spinal-cord-disorders; Nervous-system-disorders; Clinical-studies; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Histological-reactions; Neurotoxic-agents; Pathological-studies; Neurophysiological-effects
Pathology Albert Einstein Coll of Med 1300 Morris Park Avenue Bronx, N Y 10461
79-06-1; 110-54-3; 1330-78-5; 7440-38-2; 75-15-0; 130-26-7; 67-20-9; 54-85-3
Final Grant Report
Neurotoxic Disorders; Neurotoxic-effects
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Pathology (Neuropathology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
Yeshiva University, New York, New York
Page last reviewed: April 12, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division