Standard industrial classification and description are given of foundries manufacturing iron and steel castings. The foundries are classified as gray iron foundries, malleable iron foundries and steel foundries. Foundry work includes four major operations or steps: pattern making, molding, pouring, and finishing. Auxiliary operations include core molding, melting the iron and steelpigs, billets and scrap, and transfering the melt in refractory lined ladles to the molds. Specialized methods used in the iron and steel foundry industry, and major chemicals and physical agents encountered are described. Major chemical and physical hazards in foundry work are caused by fumes and dusts, vapors, molten metal and noise. Gases include carbon-monoxide (630080); dusts include iron- oxide (1332372), silicon-dioxide (7631869) and manganese-dioxide (1313139).
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