General principles involved in the recognition, evaluation and control of workers' exposure to vibration are reviewed. Topics include effects of vibration on man, including Raynaud's syndrome; vibration exposure criteria; characteristics of vibration, such as periodic or sinusoidal vibration, displacement, acceleration, and random vibrations; vibration measurements, including basic elements in a measurement system, vibration pick-ups, the preamplifier, analyzers, vibration recorders, accessories, and field measurements; control of vibration, including isolation, reduction of surface response or damping, reduction of mechanical disturbance, and limitations of control measures. Diagrams include a simplified mechanical system representing the human body standing or sitting on a vertically vibrating platform, the basic construction of the Bruel and Kjaer compression type piezo-electric accelerometers, the arrangement of equipment for automatic frequency analysis, and the ground-loop phenomena. Graphs show the transmissibility of vertical vibration from supporting surface to various parts of the body of a standing and sitting human subject as a function of frequency, subjective responses to vibratory motion, vibration exposure criteria curves, representations of pure harmonic and non-harmonic vibration, how a non-harmonic waveform can be broken up into a sum of harmonic related sinewaves, periodic signals and their frequency spectra, and results of loss factor measurements of a sandwich structure. A table gives European industries in which clinical evidence of overexposure of workers to vibration have been reported.
The Industrial Environment - Its Evaluation and Control, NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio, Chapter 26