The recommended standards include an exposure limit of 10,000 ppm (1 percent) as a time-weighted average concentration for up to a 10- hour work shift in a 40-hour work week, with a ceiling concentration of 30,000 ppm (3 percent) for 10 minutes. Provisions are included for sampling, collection, analysis, pre-employment medical examinations, periodic medical examinations, first-aid, medical records, labeling and posting, respiratory protection and respiratory requirements, informing employees, emergency procedures involving carbon-dioxide, work practices in confined spaces, ventilation systems requirements, requirements for cylinders and bulk storage vessels containing liquid carbon-dioxide (124389) and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. Criteria include the purpose of the standards, biologic effects of exposure (including the extent of exposure, historical reports, physiologic considerations, effects on humans, epidemiologic study, animal toxicity, correlation of exposure and effect, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive effects, basis for previous standards and for the present recommended standards, compatibility with others standards and research needs. Appendices include a material safety data sheet and calculation of pH using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and tables include physical constants of carbon-dioxide, occupations with potential exposures to carbon-dioxide and signs and symptoms seen in humans exposed to carbon-dioxide at 7.5 percent.
NIOSH-Publication; Toxic-gases; Toxic-substances; Air-sampling; Respiratory-gases; Exposure-limits; Maximum-permissible-concentration; Air-pollution; Control-measures; Protective-measures; Safety-measures; Air-monitoring; Respiratory-functions; Air-quality-measurement; Nervous-system-disorders; Cardiovascular-function; Kidney-function