Epidemiological considerations of occupational lead exposure.
Health effects of occupational lead and arsenic exposure, a symposium, Carnow BW, ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-134, 1976 Feb; :132-139
The variation in criteria for establishing occupational lead (7439921) exposure and its effect on epidemiological understanding are discussed, and two cases are presented illustrating the use of increased lead absorption and indicators of biological response with vague or few minor symptoms for diagnosis. One case is considered to support the impression that monitoring of blood lead provides little insight into the biological activity of lead and that the blood level of 80 micrograms per 100 milliliters may not be a safe margin. Frequency of lead poisoning during 1911-1916 is compared with recent data, and the classical signs and symptoms for lead poisoning are detailed. Diagnoses of lead poisoning on the basis of mild, vague symptoms when accompanied by laboratory evidence of biological response to lead is considered justified, and the establishment of criteria to detect the earliest point of lead poisoning is recommended.
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Contract; Contract-210-75-0026; Biological-monitoring; Toxic-substances; Hazards; Heavy-metals; Laboratory-diagnosis; Clinical-diagnosis; Diagnostic-tests; Blood-chemistry; Exposure-limits; Detection; Standards; Epidemiology
Health effects of occupational lead and arsenic exposure, a symposium.