A review of the literature reveals that byssinosis is a condition affecting people working with raw cotton, flax, or soft hemp. The effects range from chest tightness on Mondays to total disability. The agent responsible for the condition has not been identified but is found in the nonlint, or trash, fraction of cotton. Byssinosis can be prevented by a combination of dust control and medical evaluation. Information is given on methods of dust measurement, acceptable concentrations of airborne cotton dust, allowable dust concentrations, and prevalence of byssinosis.