Engineering Controls Database

Title
Hazard Description ID & keywords
Reducing Worker Exposure to Asphalt Fumes from Roofing KettlesRoofers, particularly kettle operators, may be exposed to asphalt fumes when asphalt is heated in roofing kettles for built-up roof construction. An estimated 46,000 roofing contractors work in the United States. These contractors are primarily small businesses that specialize in residential roofing. Approximately 50,000 on roof workers are exposed to asphalt fumes001 2356;23561 231-11-A;231-13-A;231-15-A;231-16-A;231-17-A;231-18-A;231-19-A;231-20-A afterburner and loader;fume-suppressing asphalt;roofing contractors asphalt kettles;roofers;roofing kettles asphalt fumes 23111A;23113A;23115A;23116A;23117A;23118A;23119A;23120A 231-11-A;231-13-A;231-15-A;231-16-A;231-17-A;231-18-A;231-19-A;231-20-A
Control of Crystalline Silica Dust When Grinding ConcreteConstruction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing crystalline silica when using handheld electric grinders to smooth poured concrete surfaces002 2357;23571;4213 247-11;247-15-A;247-15C;247-21 electric grinders;smoothing concrete concrete finishers;construction workers;grinders crystalline silica dust 24711;24715A;24715C;24721 247-11;247-15-A;247-15C;247-21
Reducing Worker Exposure to Hazardous Dust During TuckpointingConstruction workers are exposed to hazardous dust when grinding or cutting mortar or cement from between the bricks of old buildings. As brick buildings get older, the mortar between the bricks starts to fall apart and needs to be replaced (tuckpointing) to prevent water intrusion into the building. Before replacing the mortar, ½ to ¾ inch of the old mortar is removed by using a grinder. The grinder breaks up the mortar and turns it into airborne dust that may contain crystalline silica. The crystalline silica dust released during tuckpointing operations is very hard to control and dust may be carried throughout the workplace. Workers who use grinders to remove deteriorated mortar between bricks may be exposed to crystalline silica at concentrations up to 100 times the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) of 50 µg/m3003 236 247-18;247-20 mortar removal;tuckpoint grinder;ventilated grinder system grinders;tuckpointer crystalline silica dust 24718;24720 247-18;247-20
Autobody Repair - PaintingAfter structural damage to a car has been repaired, spray painting is used to refinish the car. A spray-painting gun atomizes the paint into droplets, some of which impact on the car and form a surface coating. Those droplets that do not impact on the surface being painted are called paint overspray. The painter is exposed to this overspray and solvent vapors that evaporate from the overspray and the painted surface.005 81112;811121 179-11-A;179-12-A;179-13-A;179-14-A;179-15-A;179-16-A;179-17-A;179-18-A;179-21-A autobody painting;autobody repair;repair shops autobody painting;autobody repair;paint;spray-painting;spray-painting guns chromium;lead;organic solvents;paint overspray;polyisocyanates 17911A;17912A;17913A;17914A;17915A;17916A;17917A;17918A;17921A 179-11-A;179-12-A;179-13-A;179-14-A;179-15-A;179-16-A;179-17-A;179-18-A;179-21-A
Autobody Repair - SandingDuring auto body repair, sanding removes paint from surfaces and smoothes body panels repaired with body filling compounds. Airborne dust produced during these operations may contain hazardous substances, such as lead and chromium from surface coating and abrasives from sanding discs, that are harmful to the lungs and nervous system of workers. Dust concentrations may also exceed OSHA standards.006 81112;811121 179-11-A;179-12-A;179-13-A;179-14-A;179-15-A;179-16-A;179-17-A;179-18-A;179-21-A autobody repair;autobody sanding mechanical sanders;orbital sanders;paint;rotary sanders;sanding;ventilated sanders abrasive material;chromium;dust;lead;sanding 17911A;17912A;17913A;17914A;17915A;17916A;17917A;17918A;17921A 179-11-A;179-12-A;179-13-A;179-14-A;179-15-A;179-16-A;179-17-A;179-18-A;179-21-A
Control of Hexavalent Chromium ExposuresHexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain the metallic element chromium in its positive-6 valence (hexavalent) state. Occupational exposures to Cr(VI) occur during the production of stainless steel, chromate chemicals, and chromate pigments. Cr(VI) exposures also occur during other work activities such as stainless steel welding, thermal cutting, chrome plating.007 244-03;244-05-A-1;244-05-A-2;244-05-B;244-05-C;244-05-D;244-05-E;244-05-F;244-05-G;244-05-H;244-07;244-08;244-1-00;244-9052-A;244-9052-B;244-9052-C;244-9053-B;244-9053-C;244-9054-A;244-9054-B;244-9054-C;244-9055-B;244-9055-C;244-9056-B;244-9056-C;244-9057-B;244-9057-C;244-9058-B;244-9058-C;244-9059-B;244-9059-C;244-9060-B;244-9060-C;244-9061-B;244-9061-C;244-9062-B;244-9062-C;244-9063-B;244-9063-C;244-9064-B;244-9064-C;244-9065-B;244-9065-C;244-9066-B;244-9066-C;244-9067-B;244-9067-C;244-9068-B;244-9068-C;244-9069-B;244-9069-C;244-9070-B;244-9070-C;244-9071-B;244-9071-C;244-9594-B;244-9594-C chrome;chromium and chromate pigments;chromate chemicals;chrome plating;production of stainless steel;stainless steel welding;thermal cutting hexavalent chromium 24403;24405A1;24405A2;24405B;24405C;24405D;24405E;24405F;24405G;24405H;24407;24408;244100;2449052A;2449052B;2449052C;2449053B;2449053C;2449054A;2449054B;2449054C;2449055B;2449055C;2449056B;2449056C;2449057B;2449057C;2449058B;2449058C;2449059B;2449059C;2449060B;2449060C;2449061B;2449061C;2449062B;2449062C;2449063B;2449063C;2449064B;2449064C;2449065B;2449065C;2449066B;2449066C;2449067B;2449067C;2449068B;2449068C;2449069B;2449069C;2449070B;2449070C;2449071B;2449071C;2449594B;2449594C 244-03;244-05-A-1;244-05-A-2;244-05-B;244-05-C;244-05-D;244-05-E;244-05-F;244-05-G;244-05-H;244-07;244-08;244-1-00;244-9052-A;244-9052-B;244-9052-C;244-9053-B;244-9053-C;244-9054-A;244-9054-B;244-9054-C;244-9055-B;244-9055-C;244-9056-B;244-9056-C;244-9057-B;244-9057-C;244-9058-B;244-9058-C;244-9059-B;244-9059-C;244-9060-B;244-9060-C;244-9061-B;244-9061-C;244-9062-B;244-9062-C;244-9063-B;244-9063-C;244-9064-B;244-9064-C;244-9065-B;244-9065-C;244-9066-B;244-9066-C;244-9067-B;244-9067-C;244-9068-B;244-9068-C;244-9069-B;244-9069-C;244-9070-B;244-9070-C;244-9071-B;244-9071-C;244-9594-B;244-9594-C
Control of Spotting Chemical Hazards in Commercial Dry CleaningMany hazardous chemicals are commonly used in dry cleaning shops to remove garment stains. Workers performing stain removal may be exposed to these toxic chemicals through skin absorption, eye contact, or inhalation of vapors.008 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning garment care;spotting;stain removal dilute hydrofluoric acid;spotting chemicals 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Ergonomic Hazards in Commercial Dry CleaningErgonomic risk factors increase the threat of injury to the musculoskeletal system of the worker. Musculoskeletal disorders are caused by repetitive motions, awkward postures, excessive reaching, and precision gripping. In the dry cleaning industry, ergonomic risks occur during garment transfer, pressing, and bagging. These activities, combined with a high work rate and frequency, may cause physical discomfort and musculoskeletal problems for workers.009 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning garment transfer;garments;pressing;stains ergonomic hazards;musculoskeletal system 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Fire Hazard in Commercial Dry Cleaning Shops Using Petroleum-based SolventsDry cleaning shops contain all elements necessary for uncontrolled fires: fuels, ignition sources, and oxygen. Potential combustible materials include furniture, garments, lint, and portions of the building. The greatest risk of fire and explosion exists if the dry cleaning shop uses a petroleum-based solvent in dry cleaning machines.010 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning cleaning;dry cleaning;garments fire;oxygen;petroleum-based solvents 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Dry Cleaning by IsolationPerchloroethylene (PERC) is the most commonly used dry cleaning solvent. PERC can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure.011 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning dry cleaning;garments;stains perc;perchloroethylene 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Dry Cleaning by Machine DesignPerchloroethylene (PERC) is the most commonly used dry cleaning solvent. PERC can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure.012 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning dry cleaning;garments;machine design;retrofitting;spotting perc;perchloroethylene 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Dry Cleaning by SubstitutionPerchloroethylene (PERC) is the most commonly used dry cleaning solvent. PERC can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure.013 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning chemical substitution;dry cleaner;garments;spotting perc;perchloroethylene 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Dry Cleaning by VentilationPerchloroethylene (PERC) is the most commonly used dry cleaning solvent. PERC can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure.014 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning clothing;dry cleaner;garments;spotting;stain removal perc;perchloroethylene 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Dry Cleaning Through Work PracticesPerchloroethylene (PERC) is the most commonly used dry cleaning solvent. PERC can enter the body through respiratory and dermal exposure.015 812;8123 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B dry cleaning cleaning;clothing;garments;spotting perc;perchloroethylene 20111A;20112A;20113A;20113B;20114A;20115A;20116A;20117A;20118A;20119A;24011;24012;24013;24014;24015;25616B;25617B;25618B;25619B 201-11A;201-12A;201-13A;201-13B;201-14A;201-15A;201-16A;201-17A;201-18A;201-19A;240-11;240-12;240-13;240-14;240-15;256-16B;256-17B;256-18B;256-19B
Controlling Hazardous Dust in Dyeing OperationsDry powdered dyes of many chemical types are used extensively in the coloring of textiles. These dyes are typically provided in bulk containers holding several hundred pounds and are removed as needed in measured amounts to be used alone or combined with measured quantities of other dyes to produce a desired color.

Exposure to powders or dyes can be through four primary routes: inhalation, ingestion, dermal or mucous membrane contact. The process where the powders are manually transferred from open containers and dumped into smaller containers is the time of greatest potential exposure to workers. Because the toxicity of many of these powder dyes is not well defined, it is prudent to control workers’ exposures.
016 313;3133;31331 197-11-A;197-12-A;197-13-A;197-14-A;226-11;226-12-A dyeing;textile dyehouse;textile dyeing;textiles dye weigh-out workers;dyers;powder handlers;textile workers benzidine-based dyes;dust;dyes;respirable dust;textile dyes 19711A;19712A;19713A;19714A;22611;22612A 197-11-A;197-12-A;197-13-A;197-14-A;226-11;226-12-A
Control of Formaldehyde during Embalming ProceduresEmbalmers are exposed to formaldehyde at concentrations averaging up to 9 parts per million (ppm) during embalming.017 81221 173-04B embalming;mortuary embalmers;embalming;embalming table formaldehyde 17304B 173-04B
Control of Solvent Exposure during Furniture StrippingPotential chemical hazards in the furniture stripping industry are found primarily during the handling, stripping, and rinsing of the furniture. The major routes of entry of methylene chloride and other solvents into the body include inhalation of vapors and adsorption of the liquid through the skin. Methylene chloride can be inhaled when vapors are in the air. Inhalation of the methylene chloride vapors is generally the chief source of exposure. Methylene chloride evaporates quicker than most chemicals. The odor threshold of methylene chloride is 300 ppm. Therefore, once you smell it, you are being overexposed. Pouring, moving, or stirring the chemical will increase the rate of evaporation.

Methylene chloride can be absorbed through the skin either by directly touching the chemical or through your gloves. It can be swallowed if it gets on your hands, clothes, or beard, or if food or drinks become contaminated.
018 170-11-A;170-12-A;170-13B;170-13C;170-14-A;170-16B;170-17-A;170-18A;170-19-A;170-20-A;170-22-A;170-23-A furniture stripping furniture repair;furniture strippers acetone;methanol;methylene chloride;solvents;toluene 17011A;17012A;17013B;17013C;17014A;17016B;17017A;17018A;17019A;17020A;17022A;17023A 170-11-A;170-12-A;170-13B;170-13C;170-14-A;170-16B;170-17-A;170-18A;170-19-A;170-20-A;170-22-A;170-23-A
Control of Exposure of Healthcare Workers to Hazardous DrugsDrugs are considered hazardous if studies in animals or humans show that exposures to them have a potential for causing cancer, reproductive toxicity, birth defects, or acute harm to health. Many hazardous drugs are used to treat illnesses such as cancer or HIV infection. For patients, the potential benefits of hazardous drugs outweigh the possible negative side effects. However, exposed healthcare workers risk the same side effects with no positive benefit. In the United States, an estimated 5.5 million workers in the healthcare field are potentially exposed to hazardous drugs or drug waste at their worksites.020 44611;54194;62;621;6211;62111;621111;622;6221;62211 275-05-A clinics;healthcare;hospitals;pharmacy;veterninary healthcare workers;laundry workers;maintenance workers;nurses;pharmacists;physicians;veterinarians;waste handlers antineoplastic drugs;chemotherapy drugs;hazardous drugs;pharmaceutical agents 27505A 275-05-A
Control of Lead and Noise in Indoor Firing RangesIndoor firing ranges are popular among law enforcement and recreational shooters because they offer protection from inclement weather conditions and can be operated around the clock under controlled environmental conditions. NIOSH estimates that 16,000 to 18,000 firing ranges operate in the United States. However, many firing range facilities lack environmental and occupational controls to protect the health of shooters and range personnel from effects of airborne lead, noise, and other potential exposures.021 189-05A;189-05B;189-05C;189-05D;189-05E;189-05F;189-05G firing range indoor firing ranges;law officers;target shooters lead and noise 18905A;18905B;18905C;18905D;18905E;18905F;18905G 189-05A;189-05B;189-05C;189-05D;189-05E;189-05F;189-05G
Control of Exposure to Jet FuelExposure to jet fuel may occur during fuel handling, jet maintenance, and working on the flight line.022 8113;81131 241-05-A;241-05-B;241-05-C;241-05-D;241-05-E;241-05-F;241-05-G;241-05-H airplane maintenance;aviation airplane flight line workers;airplane maintenance workers benzene;jet fuel;jp-4;jp-5;jp-8;toluene;xylene 24105A;24105B;24105C;24105D;24105E;24105F;24105G;24105H 241-05-A;241-05-B;241-05-C;241-05-D;241-05-E;241-05-F;241-05-G;241-05-H
Control of Lead Exposure in Lead Smelter WorkersThe process of lead smelting and refining exposes the worker to a host of chemicals, including the following: lead, Caustic soda, nitrate of soda, powdered sulfur, and red phosphorus.023 331;3314;33141;331419 243-05-A;243-05-B;243-05-C lead smelting;refinery;secondary lead smelting battery wrecker operator;refinery worker;smelter lead 24305A;24305B;24305C 243-05-A;243-05-B;243-05-C
Reductions of Blood Lead Levels in Lead Smelter WorkersTrucks loaded with used batteries arrive at the plant battery breaking area to be unloaded. The batteries are removed from the trucks by hand and placed on a roller conveyor which feeds batteries to the battery puncher. The battery puncher punches holes in the battery bottom to drain out the electrolyte. Batteries are then automatically crushed and shredded. The crushed and shredded pieces go to a flotation separator where lead, plastic, and hard rubber are separated. The wet lead-bearing material is conveyed to a kiln and dried. The dried lead is conveyed to a reverbatory furnace and melted into elemental lead. Slag drains out of the furnace into the molds. The molds are cooled with water and dried. The slag is then fed to the electric arc furnace in which lead is trapped off and sent to refinery pots. The elemental lead is poured into the refinery pots. Caustic soda, nitrate of soda, powdered sulfur, and red phosphorus are used to treat lead in the refinery process. Lead is then agitated, skimmed, and drossed. The lead is next alloyed, poured into pigs, bound, and stored until shipment.024 331;3314;33141;331419 243-05-A;243-05-B;243-05-C lead smelter worker;lead smelting;refinery;reverbatory furnace;secondary lead smelting automatic batter dumper;automatic dross skimmer;batteries;battery wrecker;battery wrecker operator;smelter;smelter baghouse airborne lead;blood lead levels;lead exposure;occupational lead exposure 24305A;24305B;24305C 243-05-A;243-05-B;243-05-C
Material HandlingRisk indicators of low-back pain include: general: heavy physical work, work postures in general; static work load: static work postures in general, prolonged sitting, standing or stooping, reaching, no variation in work posture; dynamic work load: heavy manual handling, lifting (heavy or frequent, unexpected heavy, infrequent torque), carrying, forward flexion of trunk, rotation of trunk, pushing/pulling; work environment: vibration, jolt, slipping/falling; and work content: monotony, repetitive work, work dissatisfaction.

Individual risk factors include: constitutional: age, gender, weight, back muscle strength (absolute and relative), fitness, back mobility, genetic factors; back complaints in the past, psychosocial: depression, anxiety, family problems, personality, dissatisfaction with work or social status of work, tense and fatigued after work, high degree of responsibility and mental concentration; other: degree of physical activity, smoking, alcohol, coughing, work experience.

Approximately one-half of all compensable low back pain is associated with manual materials handling tasks. Lifting has been implicated in 37 to 49 percent of the cases; pushing, 9 to 16 percent; pulling, 6 to 9 percent; and carrying, 5 to 8 percent; twisting the trunk has been reported in 9 to 18 percent of low back pain; bending in 12 to 14 percent; falling in 7 to 13 percent.

Construction, mining, transportation, and manufacturing are the occupations which show high rates of low back injuries.
025 4213 247-05-A;247-05-B construction;manufacturing;mining;transportation construction worker;manual labor;material handling low back injuries;low back pain;musculoskeletal 24705A;24705B 247-05-A;247-05-B
Control of Biological, Chemical, and Safety Hazards in Medical Waste Treatment FacilitiesIt has been estimated (219-05-E) that 3.5 million tons of medical wastes are generated each year in the United States. The medical waste treatment processes consist of untreated waste handling, waste treatment, and treated waste handling. It is estimated that more than 10,000 workers are involved in processing medical waste on site at healthcare establishments and off site at commercial treatment facilities.026 219-03;219-05-A;219-05-B;219-05-C;219-05-D;219-05-E;219-05-F;219-07 medical waste treatment facilities medical waste treatment;medical-waste workers biological hazards 21903;21905A;21905B;21905C;21905D;21905E;21905F;21907 219-03;219-05-A;219-05-B;219-05-C;219-05-D;219-05-E;219-05-F;219-07
Mine Assay LaboratoriesWorkers in mine assay laboratories are exposed to respirable dust and silica, lead, arsenic, mercury, and other elements in the ore that is produced from samples that are oven-dried, split, crushed, and pulverized. These emissions also come during fluxing operations where the prepared sample is mixed with lead oxide, borax, flour, silica sand, and soda ash.027 198-11A;198-11B;198-12A;198-13A;198-14A;198-14B deposit mapping;mine assay laboratories;mineral exploration;mineral lab;mineral ore lab workers;mine assay lab workers;mine lab arsenic;lead;mercury;minerals;ore elements;respirable dust;silica 19811A;19811B;19812A;19813A;19814A;19814B 198-11A;198-11B;198-12A;198-13A;198-14A;198-14B
Museums (Acids and Alkalis)Both acids and alkalis are corrosive, that is, they react with or “eat away” materials with which they come in contact.028 234-03;234-05-A;234-05-B;234-05-D;234-05-E;234-05-F;234-05-G-1;234-05-G-2;234-05-H;234-05-I;234-05-J;234-05-K;234-05-L;234-05-M museum curator;labratorian;museum worker acids;alkalis 23403;23405A;23405B;23405D;23405E;23405F;23405G1;23405G2;23405H;23405I;23405J;23405K;23405L;23405M 234-03;234-05-A;234-05-B;234-05-D;234-05-E;234-05-F;234-05-G-1;234-05-G-2;234-05-H;234-05-I;234-05-J;234-05-K;234-05-L;234-05-M
Testing for Mercury Vapor in Herbarium CabinetsMercuric chloride solutions have been used as pesticide and/or fungicide treatments for botanical specimens at least since the 18th century, were still in use in at least one major herbarium in 1982, and may continue to be used in some herbaria. Mercuric chloride is fairly soluble in water and very soluble in ethyl alcohol at 30oC. Alcohol or water solutions were used to immerse or spray specimens, pressing papers, and mounting sheets. Mercuric chloride, mercuric sulfide, and metallic mercury all constantly emit elemental mercury vapor into the surrounding air and the transition from solid compound to gaseous element is enhanced by light.029 cabinets;herbarium cabinets;mercuric chloride;mercury;mercury vapor;vapor cabinets;herbarium cabinets;mercuric chloride;mercury;mercury vapor;vapor cabinets;herbarium cabinets;mercuric chloride;mercury;mercury vapor;vapor
Museums (Paints and Surface Coatings)Paint and coating products contain many chemicals that are potentially hazardous through inhalation, absorption through skin contact as well as ingestion.030 234-03;234-05-A;234-05-B;234-05-D;234-05-E;234-05-F;234-05-G-1;234-05-G-2;234-05-H;234-05-I;234-05-J;234-05-K;234-05-L;234-05-M museum painter alkyd metals;paint;paint fumes 23403;23405A;23405B;23405D;23405E;23405F;23405G1;23405G2;23405H;23405I;23405J;23405K;23405L;23405M 234-03;234-05-A;234-05-B;234-05-D;234-05-E;234-05-F;234-05-G-1;234-05-G-2;234-05-H;234-05-I;234-05-J;234-05-K;234-05-L;234-05-M
Control of Drywall Sanding Dust ExposuresConstruction workers who sand drywall joint compound are often exposed to high concentrations of dust and, in some cases, respirable silica. Drywall joint compounds are made from many ingredients (i.e., talc, calcite, mica, gypsum, silica).

A recent NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) found that drywall sanders were exposed to as much as 10 times the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m3 for total dust set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The OSHA PEL for respirable dust (5 mg/m3), the very small particles that can go deep into the lungs, was also exceeded
031 4213 208-11-A;208-12-A;208-13-A;208-14-A;208-15-A;208-16-A;208-17-A;208-18-A;208-19-A;208-20-A;208-21-A;208-22-A;208-23-A construction;drywall installation;home builder;remodeling construction worker;drywall finishing;drywall sanding calcite;dust;gypsum;mica;respirable silica;talc 20811A;20812A;20813A;20814A;20815A;20816A;20817A;20818A;20819A;20820A;20821A;20822A;20823A 208-11-A;208-12-A;208-13-A;208-14-A;208-15-A;208-16-A;208-17-A;208-18-A;208-19-A;208-20-A;208-21-A;208-22-A;208-23-A
Drywall Sanding - Hand SandingConstruction workers who sand drywall joint compound are often exposed to high concentrations of dust and, in some cases, respirable silica. Drywall joint compounds are made from many ingredients (i.e., talc, calcite, mica, gypsum, silica).
A recent NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) found that drywall sanders were exposed to as much as 10 times the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m3 for total dust set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The OSHA PEL for respirable dust (5 mg/m3), the very small particles that can go deep into the lungs, was also exceeded.
032 4213 208-11-A;208-12-A;208-13-A;208-14-A;208-15-A;208-16-A;208-17-A;208-18-A;208-19-A;208-20-A;208-21-A;208-22-A;208-23-A construction;dry wall finishing;dry wall installation;dry wall sanding;home building;remodeling construction worker;drywall finisher;drywall installer;drywall sanding;home builder calcite;dust;gypsum;mica;respirable silica;talc 20811A;20812A;20813A;20814A;20815A;20816A;20817A;20818A;20819A;20820A;20821A;20822A;20823A 208-11-A;208-12-A;208-13-A;208-14-A;208-15-A;208-16-A;208-17-A;208-18-A;208-19-A;208-20-A;208-21-A;208-22-A;208-23-A
Evaluation of the Ability of Commercially Available Portable Air Cleaners to Remove Bioaerosols.Indoor air contains suspended biological particulate matter (bioaerosols) that can pose a threat to public health through infectious diseases. The possibility for disease transfer associated with bioaerosols has prompted an effort to design appropriate systems and methods to remove causative agents.

Transmission of tuberculosis is a good example of an airborne contagion. Although the number of cases of tuberculosis in the United States has declined in the last several years, there is still a continuing need to protect healthcare workers from risk of infection. Currently, the primary risk to healthcare workers is believed to be exposure to individuals with unsuspected or undiagnosed infectious tuberculosis. Exposures of this type may occur in healthcare facilities such as hospitals, correctional institutions, nursing homes, or clinics. While mechanical ventilation systems can provide protection to workers in these situations, there are limitations such as engineering constraints, comfort considerations, and cost. One method of supplementing mechanical ventilation systems and other engineering controls is the use of portable air cleaners (PACs) to remove or inactivate infectious microorganisms such as those that cause tuberculosis.
033 622;6221;62211 222-03;222-05-A;222-05-B clinics;health care facilities;hospital;portable air cleaners health care workers;indoor air;nurse airborne transmission;infectious agents;microorganisms 22203;22205A;22205B 222-03;222-05-A;222-05-B
Housekeeping as a Control in Printing OperationsPress operators and other workers in printing establishments are exposed to airborne solvent vapors generated when the press is cleaned. Press-cleaning solutions are generally a mixture of chemicals that include various solvents, some of which are carcinogens. Many of these solvents can be absorbed through the skin. Inks used in commercial printing are also potentially hazardous. In a study of printers’ inks, 29 samples of ink contained 46 different solvents in various combinations. Airborne exposures to hazardous chemicals are caused by evaporation from ink trays, rollers and blankets blending and thinning operations, and plate, blanket, screed, and press cleanup. Also, airborne particulates are generated by the printing process. The anti-offset powder used to prevent transfer of ink from the previous sheet to the back of the next sheet, typically made from corn or potato starch, has severe indices of ignition sensitivity and explosion severity, although the minimum explosive concentration (30±50 g/m3) is several orders of magnitude above the airborne concentrations expected in printing applications. Potato starch has a Class 2 flammability rating, characterized by local combustion of short duration.034 323110 205-12-A;205-13-A commercial printing;lithographic printing press operators;printer;printing acetone;airborne solvent vapors;benzene;butoxyethanol;cumene;cyclohexanone;ethanol;ethoxyethanol;ethyl benzene;hexane;isobutanol;isopropanol;methanol;methyl chloride;methyl ethyl ketone;methyl isobutyl ketone;naphthalene;perchloroethylene;propyl alcohol;toluene;trichloroethane;trimethylbenzene;xylene 20512A;20513A 205-12-A;205-13-A
Personal Protective Equipment in Printing OperationsPress operators and other workers in printing establishments are exposed to airborne solvent vapors generated when the press is cleaned. Press-cleaning solutions are generally a mixture of chemicals that include various solvents, some of which are carcinogens. Many of these solvents can be absorbed through the skin. Inks used in commercial printing are also potentially hazardous. In a study of printers’ inks, 29 samples of ink contained 46 different solvents in various combinations. Airborne exposures to hazardous chemicals are caused by evaporation from ink trays, rollers and blankets blending and thinning operations, and plate, blanket, screed, and press cleanup. Also, airborne particulates are generated by the printing process. The anti-offset powder used to prevent transfer of ink from the previous sheet to the back of the next sheet, typically made from corn or potato starch, has severe indices of ignition sensitivity and explosion severity, although the minimum explosive concentration (30±50 g/m3) is several orders of magnitude above the airborne concentrations expected in printing applications. Potato starch has a Class 2 flammability rating, characterized by local combustion of short duration.035 323110 205-12-A;205-13-A commercial printing;lithographic printing press operators;printers;printing acetone;airborne solvent vapors;benzene;butoxyethanol;cumene;cyclohexanone;ethanol;ethoxyethanol;ethyl benzene;hexane;isobutanol;isopropanol;methanol;methyl chloride;methyl ethyl ketone;methyl isobutyl ketone;naphthalene;perchloroethylene;propyl alcohol;toluene;trichloroethane;trimethylbenzene;xylene 20512A;20513A 205-12-A;205-13-A
Substitution of Cleaning Solutions in Printing OperationsPress operators and other workers in printing establishments are exposed to airborne solvent vapors generated when the press is cleaned. Press-cleaning solutions are generally a mixture of chemicals that include various solvents, some of which are carcinogens. Many of these solvents can be absorbed through the skin. Inks used in commercial printing are also potentially hazardous. In a study of printers’ inks, 29 samples of ink contained 46 different solvents in various combinations. Airborne exposures to hazardous chemicals are caused by evaporation from ink trays, rollers and blankets blending and thinning operations, and plate, blanket, screed, and press cleanup. Also, airborne particulates are generated by the printing process. The anti-offset powder used to prevent transfer of ink from the previous sheet to the back of the next sheet, typically made from corn or potato starch, has severe indices of ignition sensitivity and explosion severity, although the minimum explosive concentration (30±50 g/m3) is several orders of magnitude above the airborne concentrations expected in printing applications. Potato starch has a Class 2 flammability rating, characterized by local combustion of short duration.036 323110 205-12-A;205-13-A commercial printing;lithographic printing;press press maintenance;press operators;printers;printing acetone;airborne solvent vapors;benzene;butoxyethanol;cumene;cyclohexanone;ethanol;ethoxyethanol;ethyl benzene;hexane;isobutanol;isopropanol;methanol;methyl chloride;methyl ethyl ketone;methyl isobutyl ketone;naphthalene;perchloroethylene;propyl alcohol;toluene;trichloroethane;trimethylbenzene;xylene 20512A;20513A 205-12-A;205-13-A
Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems in Printing OperationsPress operators and other workers in printing establishments are exposed to airborne solvent vapors generated when the press is cleaned. Press-cleaning solutions are generally a mixture of chemicals that include various solvents, some of which are carcinogens. Many of these solvents can be absorbed through the skin. Inks used in commercial printing are also potentially hazardous. In a study of printers’ inks, 29 samples of ink contained 46 different solvents in various combinations. Airborne exposures to hazardous chemicals are caused by evaporation from ink trays, rollers and blankets blending and thinning operations, and plate, blanket, screed, and press cleanup. Also, airborne particulates are generated by the printing process. The anti-offset powder used to prevent transfer of ink from the previous sheet to the back of the next sheet, typically made from corn or potato starch, has severe indices of ignition sensitivity and explosion severity, although the minimum explosive concentration (30±50 g/m3) is several orders of magnitude above the airborne concentrations expected in printing applications. Potato starch has a Class 2 flammability rating, characterized by local combustion of short duration.037 323110 205-12-A;205-13-A commercial printing;lithographic printing;press press cleaning;press operator;printer;printing acetone;airborne solvent vapors;benzene;butoxyethanol;cumene;cyclohexanone;ethanol;ethoxyethanol;ethyl benzene;hexane;isobutanol;isopropanol;methanol;methyl chloride;methyl ethyl ketone;methyl isobutyl ketone;naphthalene;perchloroethylene;propyl alcohol;toluene;trichloroethane;trimethylbenzene;xylene 20512A;20513A 205-12-A;205-13-A
Water Mist Control of Airborne Refractory Ceramic FibersThe friction between the wheel of the disc sander/ belt of the belt sander and the ceramic workpiece results in the release of particles and fibers. Those particles are ejected at high speeds along a path tangential to the rotation of the wheel. The respirable particles, if not captured, can be carried into the breathing zone of the worker resulting in exposure to the refractory ceramic fibers and dust particles.038 32711 246-11-A ceramic manufacturing;refactory ceramic ceramic worker;refactory worker airborne refractory ceramic fibers;rcf 24611A 246-11-A
Control of Airborne Refractory Ceramic Fibers Using Local Exhaust VentilationThe friction between the wheel of the disc sander/ belt of the belt sander and the ceramic workpiece results in the release of particles and fibers. Those particles are ejected at high speeds along a path tangential to the rotation of the wheel. The respirable particles, if not captured, can be carried into the breathing zone of the worker resulting in exposure to the refractory ceramic fibers and dust particles.039 32711 246-11-A ceramic fiber parts;ceramics;refractory;refractory ceramics belt sanding;disc sanding;drilling;grinding;refractory ceramic manufacturing;sanding;sawing airborne refractory ceramic fibers;ceramic fibers;rcf 24611A 246-11-A
Reducing Hazardous Dust Exposure when Rock Drilling During ConstructionConstruction workers may be exposed to hazardous dust containing crystalline silica during site preparation when drilling systems are used. NIOSH found that drill dust could be decreased by using wet or dry dust reduction engineering controls, enclosed cabs, and implementing a dust control program.040 4213 210-11-A construction;highway construction;pipeline installation;rock drilling construction workers;rock drillers;water well drillers construction dust;crystalline silica dust;rock dust 21011A 210-11-A
Air Curtain Technology in a Rubber Milling PlantProduction of rubber products involves subjecting heterogeneous mixtures of hundreds of chemicals to heat, pressure, and catalytic action during a variety of manufacturing processes. As a result, the work environment may be contaminated with dusts, gases, vapors, fumes, and chemical byproducts (e.g., Nnitrosamines). Workers may be exposed to these hazards through inhalation and skin absorption during rubber processing and product manufacturing041 33322 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D rubber milling rubber;rubber manufacturing;rubber milling nitrosamines;nuisance dust;toxic fumes 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Welding Fumes and Fume Extraction GunsWelding operations produce gaseous and aerosol by-products composed of a complex array of metals, metal oxides, and other chemical species volatilized from either the base metal, the welding electrode, or the flux material.

The effect of welding fumes and gases on a welder’s health can vary depending on such factors as the length and intensity of the exposure, and the specific toxic metals involved. Welding processes involving stainless steel, cadmium – or lead-coated steel, or metals such as nickel, chrome, zinc, and copper are particularly hazardous as the fumes produced are considerably more toxic than those encountered when welding mild steel. Mild steel consists mainly of iron, carbon, and small amounts of manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon, while stainless steel contains mainly iron, chromium, nickel, titanium, and manganese. The NIOSH criteria document identifies arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (IV), and nickel as potential human carcinogens that may be present in welding fumes.
043 214-11-A;214-12-A;214-13-A;214-15-A arc welding;welding stainless steel;welder aluminum;arsenic;barium;beryllium;cadmium;carbon monoxide;chromium;copper;hexavalent chromium;iron;lead;magnesium;manganese;nickel;nitric oxide;nitrogen dioxide;nitrogen oxides;ozone;phosphorous;titanium;welding fumes;zinc 21411A;21412A;21413A;21415A 214-11-A;214-12-A;214-13-A;214-15-A
Welding Operations: Local Exhaust Ventilation SystemsWelding operations produce gaseous and aerosol by-products composed of a complex array of metals, metal oxides, and other chemical species volatilized from either the base metal, the welding electrode, or the flux material.

The effect of welding fumes and gases on a welder’s health can vary depending on such factors as the length and intensity of the exposure, and the specific toxic metals involved. Welding processes involving stainless steel, cadmium – or lead-coated steel, or metals such as nickel, chrome, zinc, and copper are particularly hazardous as the fumes produced are considerably more toxic than those encountered when welding mild steel. Mild steel consists mainly of iron, carbon, and small amounts of manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon, while stainless steel contains mainly iron, chromium, nickel, titanium, and manganese. The NIOSH criteria document identifies arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (IV), and nickel as potential human carcinogens that may be present in welding fumes
044 214-11-A;214-12-A;214-13-A;214-15-A gas metal arc welding;gas tungsten arc welding;shielded metal arc welding;welding metal worker;welder aluminum;arsenic;barium;beryllium;cadmium;carbon monoxide;chromium;copper;hexavalent chromium;iron;lead;magnesium;manganese;nickel;nitric oxide;nitrogen dioxide;nitrogen oxides;ozone;phosphorous;titanium;welding fumes;zinc 21411A;21412A;21413A;21415A 214-11-A;214-12-A;214-13-A;214-15-A
Pulsed Power Welding to Reduce Welding FumesWelding operations produce gaseous and aerosol by-products composed of a complex array of metals, metal oxides, and other chemical species volatilized from either the base metal, the welding electrode, or the flux material.

The effect of welding fumes and gases on a welder’s health can vary depending on such factors as the length and intensity of the exposure, and the specific toxic metals involved. Welding processes involving stainless steel, cadmium – or lead-coated steel, or metals such as nickel, chrome, zinc, and copper are particularly hazardous as the fumes produced are considerably more toxic than those encountered when welding mild steel. Mild steel consists mainly of iron, carbon, and small amounts of manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon, while stainless steel contains mainly iron, chromium, nickel, titanium, and manganese. The NIOSH criteria document identifies arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (IV), and nickel as potential human carcinogens that may be present in welding fumes.
045 214-11-A;214-12-A;214-13-A;214-15-A arc welding;gas metal arc welding;metal working metal working;pulsed power welding;welder aluminum;arsenic;barium;beryllium;cadmium;carbon monoxide;chromium;copper;hexavalent chromium;iron;lead;magnesium;manganese;nickel;nitric oxide;nitrogen dioxide;nitrogen oxides;ozone;phosphorous;titanium;welding fumes;zinc 21411A;21412A;21413A;21415A 214-11-A;214-12-A;214-13-A;214-15-A
Control of Dust Exposure for Random Orbital Hand SandersRandom orbital hand sanders have been found to create significant amounts of wood dust.046 33321;4213 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D construction;woodworking construction;orbital hand sander;powered hand tools;slotted sanding pad;woodworking wood dust 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Control of Wood Dust for Horizontal Belt SandersThe use of horizontal belt sanders in woodworking creates significant amounts of wood dust.047 33321;4213 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D construction;woodworking air jet stripper;belt sander;construction;woodworking wood dust 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Control of Wood Dust for Orbital Hand SandersOrbital hand sanders have been found to create significant amounts of wood dust.048 33321;4213 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D construction;woodworking construction;orbital hand sander;woodworking wood dust 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Control of Wood Dust for Automated Routers and Large Diameter Disc SandersAutomated routers have been found to create significant amounts of wood dust.049 33321;4213 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D construction;woodworking automated router;construction;jet stripper system;large diameter disc sander;woodworking wood dust 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Control of Wood Dust for Table SawsTable saws have been found to create significant amounts of wood dust.050 33321;4213 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D construction;woodworking construction;table saw;woodworking wood dust 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Control of Dust Exposure for Wood ShapersWood shapers are a major source of wood dust emissions051 33321;4213 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D construction;woodworking construction;wood shaper;woodworking wood dust 18005A;18005B;18005C;18005D;18005E;18005F;18005G;18005H;18005I;18005J1;18005J2;18005K1;18005K2;18005L;18005M;18005N;18005O;18005P;18005Q;18005R;18005S;18005T;18005U;18005V;18011A;18505A;18505B;18505C;18505D 180-05-A;180-05-B;180-05-C;180-05-D;180-05-E;180-05-F;180-05-G;180-05-H;180-05-I;180-05-J1;180-05-J2;180-05-K1;180-05-K2;180-05-L;180-05-M;180-05-N;180-05-O;180-05-P;180-05-Q;180-05-R;180-05-S;180-05-T;180-05-U;180-05-V;180-11-A;185-05-A;185-05-B;185-05-C;185-05-D
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Longwall Mining Operations – Headgate EntryRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
061 coal mining;respirable dust;underground mines coal miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Blowing Face VentilationRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
063 coal mining;continuous mining machine;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Exhausting Face VentilationRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
064 coal mining;continuous mining machine;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Feeder-Breakers and Shuttle CarsRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
065 coal mining;continuous mining machine;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Flooded-Bed ScrubbersRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
066 coal mining;continuous mining machine;flooded-bed scrubbers;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Intake AirwaysRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
067 coal mining;continuous mining machine;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Roof BoltersRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
068 coal mining;continuous mining machine;roof bolters;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining;roof bolters crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Continuous Mining Operations – Water Spray SystemsRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
070 coal mining;continuous mining machine;roof bolters;underground mines coal miners;continuous mining machine operator;mining;roof bolters crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Surface Mines –Controlling Haulage Road DustRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
071 coal mining;surface mines coal miners;mining;off-road haul trucks;surface mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Surface Mines – Dry Dust Collection Systems for DrillsRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases
072 coal mining;surface mines coal miners;mining;surface mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Surface Mines – Enclosed CabsRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
073 coal mining;drilling;surface mines coal miners;driller;mining;surface mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Surface Mines – Wet DrillingRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
074 coal mining;drilling;surface mines coal miners;driller;mining;surface mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Longwall Mining Operations – Belt EntryRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
075 coal mining;underground mines coal miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Longwall Mining Operations – Intake RoadwaysRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
076 coal mining;underground mines coal miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Longwall Mining Operations –Shearer DustRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
077 coal mining;underground mines coal miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Clothes Cleaning SystemsRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
078 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Mineral Processing Operations – Conveying
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.

Silica refers to the chemical compound silicon dioxide (SiO2), which occurs in a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form [NIOSH 2002]. Silica is a common component of rocks; and; throughout the mineral processing cycle, mined ore goes through a number of crushing, grinding, cleaning, drying, and product-sizing sequences as it is processed into a marketable commodity. Because these operations are highly mechanized, they are able to process high tonnages of ore. This in turn can generate large quantities of dust, often containing elevated levels of respirable crystalline silica, which can be liberated into the work environment.
079 conveyers;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing conveyer belt workers;mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Mineral Processing Operations – Crushing & Grinding
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.

Silica refers to the chemical compound silicon dioxide (SiO2), which occurs in a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form [NIOSH 2002]. Silica is a common component of rocks; and; throughout the mineral processing cycle, mined ore goes through a number of crushing, grinding, cleaning, drying, and product-sizing sequences as it is processed into a marketable commodity. Because these operations are highly mechanized, they are able to process high tonnages of ore. This in turn can generate large quantities of dust, often containing elevated levels of respirable crystalline silica, which can be liberated into the work environment.
080 metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing crushing or grinding minerals;mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Crushing FacilitiesRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.

Silica refers to the chemical compound silicon dioxide (SiO2), which occurs in a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form [NIOSH 2002]. Silica is a common component of rocks; consequently, mine workers are potentially exposed to silica dust when rock is cut, drilled, crushed, and transported.
081 metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing;stone mining;underground mines blasting;crushing;drilling;hauling;loading;miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Controlling Respirable Silica at Surface Mines – Drill Dust Collection Systems
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
082 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;surface mines mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Underground Drilling Operations
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
083 metal/nonmetal mining;stone mining;underground mines drilling;miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Controlling Respirable Silica at Surface Mines – Enclosed Cab Filtration Systems
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
084 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;surface mines mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Controlling Respirable Silica at Surface Mines – Controlling Haulage Road Dust
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
085 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;surface mines mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Mineral Processing Operations – Controlling Respirable Silica at Surface Mines – Controlling Dust at the Primary Hopper Dump
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
086 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing;surface mines mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Mineral Processing Operations – Background Issues – Housekeeping Practices
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
087 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Coal Mining – Surface Mines – Wet Suppression SystemsRespirable dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries. In coal mining, overexposure to respirable coal mine dust can lead to coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP). CWP is a lung disease that can be disabling and fatal in its most severe form. In addition, miners can be exposed to high levels of respirable silica dust, which can cause silicosis, another disabling and/or fatal lung disease. Exposure to coal mine dust may also increases a miner’s risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pathologic emphysema.

Once contracted, there is no cure for CWP or silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
088 coal mining;respirable dust;surface mines coal miners;mining;surface mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Moving Air to the Mining Face – Airflow between the Mouth of the Blowing Curtain and the FaceThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
089 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Controlling Respirable Silica at Surface Mines – Controlling Haulage Road Dust
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
102 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;surface mines mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining –
Controlling Respirable Silica at Surface Mines – Controlling Haulage Road Dust
Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
103 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;surface mines mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Dental Operatories – Control of Nitrous OxideNitrous oxide (N2O) is an anesthetic agent used in dental operating rooms. Workers are exposed to N2O while administering anesthetic gas to patients. To protect workers from the health risks associated with N2O, operating rooms are often equipped with scavenging systems that vent unused and exhaled gas away from the work area. Research shows that these systems can significantly reduce the risk of impaired fertility among female dental assistants exposed to N2O [Rowland et al.1992].

However, a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Alert [NIOSH 1994] reports that even with scavenging systems in place, NIOSH researchers measured N2O exposures more than 40 times the NIOSH recommended limit in dental operating rooms. The report clearly demonstrates that simply using a system is not sufficient--it must be continuously monitored and maintained to effectively reduce exposure to N2O.
104 621210 166-12B dental office;dental surgery;dentist;nitrous oxide dental office;dental surgery;dentist;nitrous oxide dental office;dental surgery;dentist;nitrous oxide 16612B 166-12B
Dowel Drilling Machine – Silica ExposureDowel drilling machines (or dowel drills) are used to drill horizontal holes in concrete pavement. Dowel drilling is a task performed during new concrete airport runway and highway construction (e.g., when a lane is added) or during full-depth repair of concrete pavement to provide load transfer across transverse pavement joints. Steel dowels transfer loads between adjacent concrete pavement slabs [Park et al. 2008]. Dust that may contain crystalline silica is generated during the use of dowel drilling machines (see Figure 1) [Linch 2002, Valiante et al. 2004].
[img=1]
105 333120 347-12A;347-13A;347-14A;347-15A crystalline silica;dowel drilling machines;dowel drills crystalline silica;dowel drilling machines;dowel drills crystalline silica;dowel drilling machines;dowel drills 34712A;34713A;34714A;34715A 347-12A;347-13A;347-14A;347-15A
Construction GuardrailsIn the construction industry, injuries and fatalities caused by falls-from-elevation are serious problems in United States workplaces.106 23 construction;falls;guardrails construction falls;guardrails
Postal Culling SystemIn 2001, terrorist attacks took place where anthrax spores were sent by mail to a U.S. Senator and to media offices [CDC 2001]. These attacks resulted in exposure to anthrax spores by postal employees working in a mail processing facility that serves the U.S. Capitol and resulted in inhalation disease in several of the workers [Mayer et al. 2001].

One potential area of exposure in the United States Postal Service (USPS) is the automated mail processing equipment used to sort incoming mail. As the mail passes through the machinery, it is compressed and impacted in a number of places that could cause release of substances from the mail.
107 333318 279-14A1;279-14A2;279-20A;279-22 anthrax;culling system;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service mail handlers anthrax 27914A1;27914A2;27920A;27922 279-14A1;279-14A2;279-20A;279-22
Postal Advanced Facer Cancellation SystemIn 2001, terrorist attacks took place where anthrax spores were sent by mail to a U.S. Senator and to media offices [CDC 2001]. These attacks resulted in exposure to anthrax spores by postal employees working in a mail processing facility that serves the U.S. Capitol and resulted in inhalation disease in several of the workers [Mayer et al. 2001].

One potential area of exposure in the United States Postal Service (USPS) is the automated mail processing equipment used to sort incoming mail. As the mail passes through the machinery, it is compressed and impacted in a number of places that could cause release of substances from the mail.
108 333318 279-16A;279-18A;279-19A;279-23A anthrax;automated facer cancellation system;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service mail handlers anthrax 27916A;27918A;27919A;27923A 279-16A;279-18A;279-19A;279-23A
Asphalt Pavement-milling – Respirable Crystalline Silica ExposureA variety of machinery is employed in asphalt pavement recycling, including cold-planers, heater-planers, cold-millers, and heater-scarifiers [Public Works 1995]. Cold-milling, which uses a toothed, rotating cutter drum to grind and remove the pavement to be recycled, is primarily used to remove surface deterioration on both petroleum-asphalt aggregate and Portland-cement concrete road surfaces [Public Works 1995]. Dust generated during the use of road milling machines may contain respirable crystalline silica [Linch 2002].109 237310 282-12A;282-14A;282-15A;282-16A;282-17A;282-18A;282-19A;282-20A;282-21A;282-22A;282-23A;282-24A;282-25A;282-26A control technology;crystalline silica;pavement milling;roadtec milling machine;wirtgen milling machine control technology;crystalline silica;pavement milling;roadtec milling machine;wirtgen milling machine control technology;crystalline silica;pavement milling;roadtec milling machine;wirtgen milling machine 28212A;28214A;28215A;28216A;28217A;28218A;28219A;28220A;28221A;28222A;28223A;28224A;28225A;28226A 282-12A;282-14A;282-15A;282-16A;282-17A;282-18A;282-19A;282-20A;282-21A;282-22A;282-23A;282-24A;282-25A;282-26A
U.S. Postal Service Contaminant Controls – Delivery Bar Code SorterIn 2001, terrorist attacks took place where anthrax spores were sent by mail to a U.S. Senator and to media offices [CDC 2001]. These attacks resulted in exposure to anthrax spores by postal employees working in a mail processing facility that serves the U.S. Capitol and resulted in inhalation disease in several of the workers [Mayer et al. 2001].

One potential area of exposure in the United States Postal Service (USPS) is the automated mail processing equipment used to sort incoming mail. As the mail passes through the machinery, it is compressed and impacted in a number of places that could cause release of substances from the mail.
110 333318 279-11A;279-17A anthrax;delivery bar code sorter;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service anthrax;delivery bar code sorter;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service anthrax;delivery bar code sorter;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service 27911A;27917A 279-11A;279-17A
U.S. Postal Service Contaminant Controls – Automated Flat Sorter MachineIn 2001, terrorist attacks took place where anthrax spores were sent by mail to a U.S. Senator and to media offices [CDC 2001]. These attacks resulted in exposure to anthrax spores by postal employees working in a mail processing facility that serves the U.S. Capitol and resulted in inhalation disease in several of the workers [Mayer et al. 2001].

One potential area of exposure in the United States Postal Service (USPS) is the automated mail processing equipment used to sort incoming mail. As the mail passes through the machinery, it is compressed and impacted in a number of places that could cause release of substances from the mail.
111 333318 279-12A;279-15A advanced flat sorter machine;anthrax;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service advanced flat sorter machine;anthrax;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service advanced flat sorter machine;anthrax;engineering control;mail handlers;United States Postal Service 27912A;27915A 279-12A;279-15A
U.S. Postal Service Contaminant Controls – Loose Mail Distribution System & Dual Pass Rough Cull of the 010 Culling SystemIn 2001, terrorist attacks took place where anthrax spores were sent by mail to a U.S. Senator and to media offices [CDC 2001]. These attacks resulted in exposure to anthrax spores by postal employees working in a mail processing facility that serves the U.S. Capitol and resulted in inhalation disease in several of the workers [Mayer et al. 2001].

One potential area of exposure in the United States Postal Service (USPS) is the automated mail processing equipment used to sort incoming mail. As the mail passes through the machinery, it is compressed and impacted in a number of places that could cause release of substances from the mail.
112 333318 279-21A anthrax;dual pass rough cull;engineering control;loose mail distribution system;mail handlers;United States Postal Service anthrax;dual pass rough cull;engineering control;loose mail distribution system;mail handlers;United States Postal Service anthrax;dual pass rough cull;engineering control;loose mail distribution system;mail handlers;United States Postal Service 27921A 279-21A
Aircraft Painting Operations - Exposure Control MeasuresRefinishing of Navy aircraft is conducted at the Naval Base Coronado (NBC), San Diego, CA. During the painting operations, workers may be exposed to a number of air contaminants including hexavalent chromium (CrVI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK).113 491110 329-12A;329-12B aircraft painting;computational fluid dynamics;engineering controls;hexavalent chromium;isocyanates;Navy aircraft aircraft painting;computational fluid dynamics;engineering controls;hexavalent chromium;isocyanates;Navy aircraft aircraft painting;computational fluid dynamics;engineering controls;hexavalent chromium;isocyanates;Navy aircraft 32912A;32912B 329-12A;329-12B
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations –Techniques for Measuring Airflow – AnemometersThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
114 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Autobody Repair Shops – Control of Paint OversprayWhen painting during auto body repair, multiple thin layers of the different paints are applied. When base metal is exposed, these areas are first covered with a primer. Once the vehicle is ready for final painting, several base coats are applied, the paint is allowed to sit a short while (10-20 minutes), then the color paint is applied, again in several thin coats. Lastly, the clear top coat is sprayed on until a uniform gloss is achieved. The vehicle is then allowed to sit overnight or in a heated booth to allow the paint to dry.

High volume, low pressure (HVLP) spray guns are used to reduce the amount of paint over-spray. However, many painters still use conventional spray gun to some degree, especially when applying the clear coats of paint. Even if a spray booth is available at the repair shop, paint may be applied in a secondary temporary booth or in the open. This is due to the number of cars being painted and the limitations on drying times.
115 811121 auto repair;automotive body shops;paint overspray auto repair;automotive body shops;paint overspray auto repair;automotive body shops;paint overspray
Barley Mill – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Excessive sound levels existed around the Moorspeed and Ross barley mills (rolls 8 in. - diameter, 15 in. - long), a hay shredder, and a control operator's chair in a cattle feed grinding mill. The objective was to reduce the sound level at the operator's position for Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance.
116 311119 barley mill;barriers;curtains;noise;noise control;partial enclosures barley mill;barriers;curtains;noise;noise control;partial enclosures barley mill;barriers;curtains;noise;noise control;partial enclosures
Control Technology and Exposure Assessment for Occupational Exposure to Beryllium: Abrasive Blasting with Coal-slagOccupational exposure to beryllium occurs at places where the chemical is mined, processed, or converted into metal, alloys, and other chemicals. Health risks exist if beryllium-containing materials are dispersed as a dust, fume, mist, or beryllium-containing solution or suspension that can be inhaled or come into contact with unprotected skin.

Workers engaged in machining metals containing beryllium, recycling beryllium from scrap alloys, or using beryllium products may also be exposed to higher levels of beryllium. The number of workers exposed to beryllium or beryllium compounds has been estimated to be 21,000.
117 263-12-A;263-13-A abrasive blasting;beryllium mining;manufacturing abrasive blaster;blaster helper beryllium;beryllium dust;fume;or mist 26312A;26313A 263-12-A;263-13-A
800-Ton Blanking Press – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: The 800-ton Verson press is a massive unit weighing about 275,000 pounds (lb), and mounted on four footings set on heavy concrete piers. Production on this press was automobile chassis steel sections of 1/4-in. steel about 10 in. wide and 8 to 10 ft long. Normal operating speed was 30 strokes/min. Steel stock was fed to the press from a reel. Noise levels were about 120 dBA on impact, 105 dBA at quasi-peak, and 94.5 dB at operator location, which was about 4 ft in front of the press.
118 333513 automobile manufacturing;blanking;noise;noise control;press automobile manufacturing;blanking;noise;noise control;press automobile manufacturing;blanking;noise;noise control;press
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Moving Air to the Mining Face – Blowing Curtain and TubingThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
119 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Braiding Machine – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Braiding machines are used in the textile industry to combine several filaments of material into a single braided strand. The braiding process is accomplished mechanically by having many individual material "carriers" move simultaneously around the periphery of a table in such a fashion that the carriers crisscross each other as they move. The material strands, fed from the carriers, are thus formed into a braid. Considerable noise is generated by the gearing and the impacts associated with the carriers as they constantly change direction. Typically, many braiding machines are assembled in multiple rows and operate simultaneously, tended by operators who make sure the machines are functioning properly.
120 333292 braiding machine;manufacturing;noise;noise control;textile braiding machine;manufacturing;noise;noise control;textile braiding machine;manufacturing;noise;noise control;textile
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Measuring Gas Levels Outby the Face – Cap Lamp-mounted Personal MonitorThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
121 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Border Agents Exposure to Carbon Monoxide (CO) from Vehicle EmissionsBorder Control Agents may be exposed to harmful levels of Carbon Monoxide gas while working at a car inspection area at a federal border crossing. Many cars pass through the border crossing every day. Most are stopped with their engines idling during inspection, emitting car exhaust which contains carbon monoxide gas.122 010-02A;010-03A;171-33A Border Agents;Border Crossings;Carbon Monoxide (CO);Federal Security;Vehicle Emissions Border Agents;Border Crossings;Carbon Monoxide (CO);Federal Security;Vehicle Emissions Border Agents;Border Crossings;Carbon Monoxide (CO);Federal Security;Vehicle Emissions 01002A;01003A;17133A 010-02A;010-03A;171-33A
Coal Gasification and Liquefaction: Control Technology AssessmentThe principal objective of the coal conversion industry is to convert coal to gaseous or liquid products which are more valuable on a per unit energy basis than the coal feedstock. In 1981, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) initiated a study ("Control Technology Assessment for Coal Gasification and Liquefaction Processes") of the control technologies that were available to prevent occupational exposures in coal conversion plants.

The NIOSH division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (DPSE) contracted (No. 210-78-0084) with Dynamac Corporation of Rockville, MD to conduct the site visits and evaluations of the gasification plants and liquefaction facilities. A total of seven facilities were evaluated:

• Caterpillar Tractor Company Gasification Facility, York, PA (report # 119-22a)
• CAN-DO Anthracite Coal Gasification Plant, Hazelton, PA (report # 119-23a)
• Westinghouse Fluidized-Bed Coal Gasification Process Development Unit, Waltz, Mill, PA (report # 119-24a)
• Tennessee Valley Authority National Fertilizer Development Center, Coal Gasification and Purification Unit, Muscle Shoals, AL (report # 119-27a)
• Rockwell International Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit, Santa Susana, CA (report # 119-28a)
• Tosco Corporation Rocky Flats Research Center TOSCOL coal Pyrolysis Process, Golden, CO (report # 119-29a)
• Dravo Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (report # 119-30a)
123 211111 119-22A;119-23A;119-24A;119-27A;119-28A;119-29A;119-30A coal gasification;coal liquefaction;coal pyrolysis;explosive gases;gas production;respirable dust coal gasification;coal liquefaction;coal pyrolysis;explosive gases;gas production;respirable dust coal gasification;coal liquefaction;coal pyrolysis;explosive gases;gas production;respirable dust 11922A;11923A;11924A;11927A;11928A;11929A;11930A 119-22A;119-23A;119-24A;119-27A;119-28A;119-29A;119-30A
Control of Nitrous Oxide During CryosurgeryCompressed gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O) are often used to obtain the cold temperatures needed for cryosurgery. Cryosurgical instruments which use compressed gas are designed to allow the gas to expand through a valve inside the metal tip of the cryosurgical probe, causing the tip to reach extremely low temperatures. If the exhaust gas from the probe is improperly vented, N2O concentrations in air can reach several thousand parts per million during a cryosurgical procedure; and depending on the room ventilation rate, levels may remain elevated for long periods of time following the procedure.124 621111 cryosurgery;healthcare providers;nitrous oxide;reproductive hazards cryosurgery;healthcare providers;nitrous oxide;reproductive hazards cryosurgery;healthcare providers;nitrous oxide;reproductive hazards
Dairy Barns – Control of Organic Dusts from Bedding Choppers in Dairy BarnsFarmers use bedding choppers to chop bales of hay or straw for dairy cow bedding. The chopping of bedding material is hazardous because it is usually made of low quality straw or hay that contains high levels of microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. These microorganisms are released into the air during the chopping process creating a respiratory exposure hazard.125 112120 dairy cattle;dairy cattle farming;milk production dairy cattle;dairy cattle farming;milk production dairy cattle;dairy cattle farming;milk production
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effects of Scrubber Operations – Direction of Scrubber Exhaust, Effect on Intake and RecirculationThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
126 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effect of Water Sprays on Face Airflow and Methane – Effect of Nozzle DirectionThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
127 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Engineering control title: Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effects of Scrubber Operations – Effect of Scrubber Flow on Intake FlowThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
128 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effect of Water Sprays on Face Airflow and Methane - Effect of Sprays on Methane DistributionsThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
129 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effect of Water Sprays on Face Airflow and Methane – Effect of Water Sprays on Airflow at the FaceThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
130 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effect of Water Sprays on Face Airflow and Methane – Effect of Water Sprays on Intake AirflowThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
131 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Moving Air to the Mining Face – Effects of Airflow on Methane ConcentrationsThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
132 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Effects of Scrubber Operations – Effects of Scrubber use on Methane Levels above the MachineThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
133 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Control of Hazardous Material and Noise Exposure in Electronics Recycling Operations.Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and other metals are used in the manufacturing of electronic components. These pose a risk to workers involved in recycling of electronic components if the processes are not adequately controlled or the workers are not properly trained and provided appropriate personal protective clothing and equipment.

The disassembly and recovery of materials from electronic equipment creates an exposure risk for workers.

Air sampling conducted at one recovery operation indicated that exposures can be well in excess of OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). In the facility described in the report, the highest exposures occurred to workers during maintenance operations when a three filter bank system of filters used to clean the air was replaced. Airborne concentrations of Cd and Pb measured during filter change-out showed an 8-hour time weighted average of about 150 times the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Cd and 15 times the OSHA PEL for Pb for one of the two workers conducting the filter exchange operation. Air samples collected on a second worker showed airborne concentrations of 30 times the PEL for Cd and 4 times the PEL for Pb. In both cases the results showed that the Cd concentrations exceeded the assigned protection factor for the powered air-purifying respirator being used by the workers. An overexposure to Cd was also found during the weekly clean-up operation. While beryllium levels were not consistently high at the facility referenced in the report [EPHB 326-12a], many of the activities that might expose workers to beryllium (such as shredding of removed components) were not conducted on-site.

Sampling also indicated exposure risks from surface contamination. Surface wipe and bulk dust samples were also examined at the operation and lead, cadmium and other heavy metals were detected. While there are few established standards available for wipe samples with which to compare these data, and although wipe sample results cannot be used to determine when the contamination occurred, most of the surfaces tested for lead indicated levels exceeding the most stringent criteria.

Finally, workers were exposed to risks of hearing loss from sustained noise levels over exposure limits. Measurement of noise levels at the facility examined in the report indicated several measurements exceeding the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 85 dBA. One exceeded the PEL of 90 dBA and 3 other measurements exceeded 50% of the allowable dose requiring that those employees be placed in a hearing conservation program. Engineering controls were not implemented in this case of this hazard, although operators need to be made aware of potential risks.
134 562920 326-12A barium;beryllium;cadmium;component disassembly;electronics;glass breaking operations;lead and nickel;packaging and shipping.;receiving and sorting;Recycling;respirable particulates barium;beryllium;cadmium;component disassembly;electronics;glass breaking operations;lead and nickel;packaging and shipping.;receiving and sorting;Recycling;respirable particulates barium;beryllium;cadmium;component disassembly;electronics;glass breaking operations;lead and nickel;packaging and shipping.;receiving and sorting;Recycling;respirable particulates 32612A 326-12A
Environmental Enclosures for Use in AgricultureEnclosed operator cabs are employed on vehicles (e.g., tractors) to offer various levels of worker risk reduction against the hazards of the operational environment inherent in agriculture. These operations usually have physical, audible, dermal, and respiratory hazards.

The cab enclosure itself is shelter against weather conditions and provides the basis for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for maintaining a comfortable temperature and a breathable quantity of outside makeup air for the operator. A critical component of these enclosed cabs is their filtration systems. A fan pulls air through filters and then blows the cleaned air into the cab, pressurizing the cab. These enclosures may be used instead of respirators to protect workers from harmful particles or aerosols. Because these enclosures may be used for many years, enclosure performance may degrade due to aging and inadequate maintenance.
135 115115;333111 223-11B;223-13-A;223-15-A;223-16-A;223-17-A;223-18-A agriculture;farms agricultural workers;farmers;pesticide sprayers asthma;hypersensitivity pneumonitis;organic dust syndrome;pesticide poisoning 22311B;22313A;22315A;22316A;22317A;22318A 223-11B;223-13-A;223-15-A;223-16-A;223-17-A;223-18-A
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Moving Air to the Mining Face – Estimating the Ventilation Flow Quantity reaching the FaceThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
136 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Moving Air to the Mining Face: Extensible Systems – Jet FansThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
137 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Jar Filling Machines – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Two Nalbach filling machines used to fill freeze-dried coffee in glass jars were located in a 65 ft x 23 ft x 10 ft room at an Ohio plant. There are two fixed worker stations for each machine. An operator station is directly in front of the filling machine, and an inspection station is located downstream of the machine discharge conveyor. A roving worker also works in this area. The filler operator maintains a steady flow of bottles into the filling machine and checks and adjusts the filled weight of product as required. The inspector's function is to ensure that each jar is properly filled and that lids are securely fastened to the jars. The roving worker fills the lid bins with lids and maintains cleanliness in the area.
138 311920 coffee manufacturing;filling machines;noise;noise control coffee manufacturing;filling machines;noise;noise control coffee manufacturing;filling machines;noise;noise control
Reducing Worker Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals (Including Diacetyl) During the Production and Use of Food FlavoringsWorkers exposed to flavoring chemicals in flavoring manufacturing plants, and workers exposed to flavoring chemicals in the production of different food products are at risk of developing lung disease and other health effects if their exposure is not properly controlled. Employees within the flavoring production industry have complex exposures in terms of the physical form of the agents (solid, liquid, and gas) and the number of different chemicals used. Although there are thousands of flavoring compounds in use, only a small number have occupational exposure limits. With the lack of occupational exposure limits for a majority of the thousands of flavoring chemicals, the development of exposure control guidance is critical to help reduce the risk of flavoring-related obstructive lung disease. Research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has led to recommendations for preventing exposure to flavorings.139 311930 322-11A;322-12A;322-13A;322-14A;322-15A bronchiolitis obliterans;diacetyl;flavorings;food production;pentanedione bronchiolitis obliterans;diacetyl;flavorings;food production;pentanedione bronchiolitis obliterans;diacetyl;flavorings;food production;pentanedione 32211A;32212A;32213A;32214A;32215A 322-11A;322-12A;322-13A;322-14A;322-15A
Folding Carton Packing Stations, Air Hammer Noise – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: In the manufacture of folding cartons, the individual cartons are cut, and the cut sheets are stacked by the cutting press on a pallet. To deliver the multiple sheets from the press, the cartons are held together with a nick or uncut portion. When stacked, the individual cartons are separated by stripping with an air-driven chisel which breaks the nicks and frees an entire stack. When no additional operations are needed, these stacks are packed in cases for shipment.

Air hammers/chisels produce noise that has not yet been eliminated by equipment manufacturers. Currently available air hammer mufflers do not reduce the noise to an acceptable level. The air hammer operator therefore must wear ear protection. The problem in this case was to protect other workers (packers) from the air hammer noise. A typical production air hammer stripping and packing set-up is shown in Figure 1. The production sequence for this operation is for the stripper to air hammer a stack of cartons (precounted by the cutting press) and place them on the conveyor at Point C. The packer, at the end of conveyor E, prepares the case, packs the stacks of cartons, seals, labels, and stacks the finished pack on a delivery skid. Two packers are required to handle the output from one stripper. The stripper is actually using the air hammer about 50% of his time, with the balance of the time used in stacking or preparing the load. Thus, s/he can get some relief from continuous use of ear muffs by hanging them around his/her neck while not actually using the hammer.
140 32212 air hammers;chisels;folding cartons;noise;noise barriers;noise control air hammers;chisels;folding cartons;noise;noise barriers;noise control air hammers;chisels;folding cartons;noise;noise barriers;noise control
Foundries – Control Technology RecommendationsThe National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has conducted a number of control technology evaluations of foundries. The Engineering Control Technology Branch (ECTB) of the Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (DPSE) was given the lead within NIOSH to study the engineering aspects of hazard control. The first of these evaluations (171-16a, 171-17a, 171-17b) were done under the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) in conjunction with the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH). This surveillance system utilizes morbidity (hospital discharge) data and mortality (death certificate) data to identify cases of silicosis. Health department surveillance data indicate the largest number of silicosis cases in the state exist in the sand mining and processing, pottery (sanitary ware), and foundry industries. This disease is caused by exposure to crystalline silica in these industries.

In November 1991, NIOSH received a management request to evaluate worker exposures throughout the General Castings-Powers Street Facility, a gray and ductile iron foundry in Cincinnati, Ohio [NIOSH 1993]. This gray and ductile iron foundry is housed in a masonry building and operated one shift with 32 employees. This initial survey looked at operations in the entire plant and included collection of samples to determine personal respirable silica exposure concentrations. The survey results showed high respirable silica exposure concentrations for the workers in a number of areas including those engaged in casting cleaning operations. The respirable silica concentrations that these workers were exposed to ranged from 124 to 160 µg/m3, 8-hr time-weighted-average (TWA). The NIOSH recommended exposure level (REL) is 0.05 mg/m3 TWA for respirable crystalline silica. The purpose of this study (171-21a) was to evaluate the effectiveness of a ventilation control for reducing the silica exposure concentrations.

In 1998, NIOSH initiated a numerical modeling study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate the ventilation system of Eljer Plumbingware, Inc. in Salem, OH. Eljer Plumbingware is a gray iron foundry that had a history of overexposure to silica and carbon monoxide. A costly new ventilation system had been installed but was not effective in reducing exposures to compliance levels.
141 331511 171-16A;171-17A;171-17B;171-21A;245-11A chipping and grinding;foundries;metal castings;quartz;respirable dust;silicosis chipping and grinding;foundries;metal castings;quartz;respirable dust;silicosis chipping and grinding;foundries;metal castings;quartz;respirable dust;silicosis 17116A;17117A;17117B;17121A;24511A 171-16A;171-17A;171-17B;171-21A;245-11A
Houseboat Carbon Monoxide Exposure - Generator Catalytic Emission ControlGasoline-powered generators are commonly used on houseboats to provide electricity for air conditioning, kitchen appliances, entertainment systems, communication equipment, etc. When operating, generators produce carbon monoxide (CO).

CO is a lethal poison that is produced when fuels such as gasoline or propane are burned. It is one of many chemicals found in engine exhaust resulting from incomplete combustion. Because CO is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas, it can overcome an exposed person without warning. The initial symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea. Symptoms may advance to vomiting, loss of consciousness, and collapse if prolonged or high exposures are encountered. If the exposure level is high, loss of consciousness may occur without other symptoms. Coma or death may occur if high exposures continue [NIOSH 1979].

During operation of on-board generators (without operation of propulsion engines), concentrations of CO in the airspace under the extended rear deck of houseboats were measured in excess of 30,000 ppm (parts per million). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for CO is 35 ppm for full shift TWA exposure, with a ceiling limit of 200 ppm which should never be exceeded [CDC 1988]. The NIOSH REL is designed to protect workers for an 8-hour workday. NIOSH has also established an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) value for CO of 1,200 ppm [NIOSH 2000].
142 336612 171-05VV;171-27A;171-29A;171-32A;171-36A;171-38A;289-14A carbon monoxide;catalytic converters;control technology;generator exhaust;houseboats;recreational boats carbon monoxide;catalytic converters;control technology;generator exhaust;houseboats;recreational boats carbon monoxide;catalytic converters;control technology;generator exhaust;houseboats;recreational boats 17105VV;17127A;17129A;17132A;17136A;17138A;28914A 171-05VV;171-27A;171-29A;171-32A;171-36A;171-38A;289-14A
Houseboat Carbon Monoxide Exposure - Generator Emissions Control (Exhaust Configurations)Gasoline-powered generators are commonly used on houseboats to provide electricity for air conditioning, kitchen appliances, entertainment systems, communication equipment, etc. When operating, generators produce carbon monoxide (CO).

CO is a lethal poison that is produced when fuels such as gasoline or propane are burned. It is one of many chemicals found in engine exhaust resulting from incomplete combustion. Because CO is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas, it can overcome an exposed person without warning. The initial symptoms of CO poisoning may include headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea. Symptoms may advance to vomiting, loss of consciousness, and collapse if prolonged or high exposures are encountered. If the exposure level is high, loss of consciousness may occur without other symptoms. Coma or death may occur if high exposures continue [NIOSH 1979].

During operation of on-board generators (without operation of propulsion engines), concentrations of CO in the airspace under the extended rear deck of houseboats were measured in excess of 30,000 ppm (parts per million). The NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for CO is 35 ppm for full shift TWA exposure, with a ceiling limit of 200 ppm which should never be exceeded [CDC 1988]. The NIOSH REL of 35 ppm is designed to protect workers during an 8-hour workday. NIOSH has also established an Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) value for CO of 1,200 ppm [NIOSH 2000].
143 336612 171-25A;171-26A;171-28A;171-29A;171-32A;171-34A1;171-34A2;171-36A carbon monoxide;control technology;generator exhaust;houseboats;recreational boats carbon monoxide;control technology;generator exhaust;houseboats;recreational boats carbon monoxide;control technology;generator exhaust;houseboats;recreational boats 17125A;17126A;17128A;17129A;17132A;17134A1;17134A2;17136A 171-25A;171-26A;171-28A;171-29A;171-32A;171-34A1;171-34A2;171-36A
Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building EnvironmentsTerrorism events have increased interest in the vulnerability of U.S. workplaces, schools, and other occupied buildings to chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) threats.144 278-11-A;279-11-A;279-12-A;279-14A1;279-14A2;279-15-A;279-16-A;279-17-A;279-18-A;279-19-A;279-20-A;279-21-A;279-23-A building vulnerability;terrorist attack building occupants CBR attacks;terrorism 27811A;27911A;27912A;27914A1;27914A2;27915A;27916A;27917A;27918A;27919A;27920A;27921A;27923A 278-11-A;279-11-A;279-12-A;279-14A1;279-14A2;279-15-A;279-16-A;279-17-A;279-18-A;279-19-A;279-20-A;279-21-A;279-23-A
Guidance for Protecting Building Environments From Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological AttacksTerrorism events have increased interest in the vulnerability of U.S. workplaces, schools, and other occupied buildings to chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) threats.147 277-11;278-05-2;278-05-3;278-05-A-1;278-05-A-2;278-05-D;278-07;279-05-B;279-05-C;279-05-D;279-05-E;280-05-A-1;280-05-G-1;280-05-H;280-05-I building vulnerability;terrorist attack building occupants CBR attacks;terrorism 27711;278052;278053;27805A1;27805A2;27805D;27807;27905B;27905C;27905D;27905E;28005A1;28005G1;28005H;28005I 277-11;278-05-2;278-05-3;278-05-A-1;278-05-A-2;278-05-D;278-07;279-05-B;279-05-C;279-05-D;279-05-E;280-05-A-1;280-05-G-1;280-05-H;280-05-I
Controlling Ergonomic Hazards: Wiring Tasks for Household AppliancesBecause most household appliances are electrically powered, many workers assembling household appliances perform wiring operations. Some workers attach up to five wires during a 20-second cycle time. Workers who make the connections by hand often wrap their fingers with tape at the location of contact stresses. The average amount of force required to connect a standard crimp terminal to its tab varies from 12 to 32 lb, depending on the gauge of the wire.148 335211 carpal tunnel syndrome;electric appliance manufacture;electric houseware manufacture;wire assembly workers carpal tunnel syndrome;electric appliance manufacture;electric houseware manufacture;wire assembly workers carpal tunnel syndrome;electric appliance manufacture;electric houseware manufacture;wire assembly workers
Vessel Downflooding Prevention – Hatch and Door Monitoring System and Multi-level Flood SensorIn 2008, over 8 billion pounds of seafood was harvested in the United States earning over $4.4 billion. There are approximately 115,000 harvesters in the United States using a variety of different fishing gear and vessels [NOAA 2010]. Species that contributed the most to this revenue include shrimp, Pacific salmon, pollock and lobster.

Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Many commercial fishing operations are characterized by hazardous working conditions, strenuous labor, long work hours and harsh weather. During 1992-2008, an annual average of 58 deaths occurred (128 deaths per 100,000 workers), compared with an average of 5,894 deaths (4 per 100,000 workers) among all U.S. workers [DOL 2010].
149 commercial fishing fishermen cross-compartment flooding;downflooding;vessel capsizing;vessel rollover
Hot Mix Asphalt Pavers – Engineering ControlsApproximately 300,000 workers are employed at hot-mix asphalt facilities and paving sites.150 208-12-A;208-13-A;208-14-A;208-15-A;208-17-A;208-18-A;208-19-A;208-20-A;208-21-A;208-22-A;208-23-A asphalt pavers asphalt pavers;paver operators;rakers;tackmen asphalt;asphalt fumes 20812A;20813A;20814A;20815A;20817A;20818A;20819A;20820A;20821A;20822A;20823A 208-12-A;208-13-A;208-14-A;208-15-A;208-17-A;208-18-A;208-19-A;208-20-A;208-21-A;208-22-A;208-23-A
Impact Trimming Machines – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Eight George Knight air impact trimming machines, located close together in a large production area, performed the trimming function once every 5 to 6 sec. An operator sat directly in front of each machine, and the sound level at each operator's station varied between 80 and 99 dBA.

Since the eight workers were located in close proximity to each other, they received noise not only from their own machines (up to 97 dBA) but also from their neighbors' machines (up to 95 dBA). Equivalent daily exposures (time-averaged sound levels) for individual operators were found to be 91 to 92 dBA.
151 333292 air impact;fabric manufacture;trimming machine air impact;fabric manufacture;trimming machine air impact;fabric manufacture;trimming machine
Insect Rearing Facilities – Control Observations and RecommendationsThe Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the Department of Agriculture helps safeguards agriculture and natural resources from the entry, establishment, and spread of animal and plant pests and noxious weeds into the United States. One of the methods used by APHIS to help eradicate insects is to raise the insects in facilities for release of sterilized insects into the environment.

In early 1993, the Engineering Control Technology Branch of the Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering (DPSE) was asked to assist in an Occupational Asthma Identification project being carried out by the Clinical Investigations Branch of the Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (DRDS) by evaluating engineering controls used in insect rearing facilities. Industrial hygiene evaluations of three insect rearing facilities operated by APHIS were conducted. Observations were made at the Pink Boll Worm Rearing Facility in Phoenix, Arizona, August 22-26, 1993; the Mexican Fruit Fly Rearing Facility in Edinburg, Texas, August 28-30, 1993; and the Gypsy Moth Rearing Group at Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts, November 1-4, 1993.
152 010-01A asthma;dust;insect rearing facilities asthma;dust;insect rearing facilities asthma;dust;insect rearing facilities 01001A 010-01A
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Methane Monitoring during Roof Bolting – Laboratory TestsThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for coal-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of coal from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
153 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Control Technology for Removing Lead-based Paint from Steel Structures: Abrasive Blasting Inside Two Ventilated Containment SystemsWorkers in the steel structure painting industry (e.g., bridges) doing abrasive blasting are at risk of high exposures to potentially hazardous levels of lead and silica. In addition to abrasive blasters and support personnel, site clean-up workers may also be exposed when containment structures (which may contain or be contaminated with residual lead and silica particles) are dissembled and moved or when handling abrasive and waste materials. High exposure levels have also been observed for auxiliary equipment workers and for those cleaning up the site after paint removal was completed.154 183-12-A;183-13-A;183-14-A;183-15A;183-16-A;183-17-A;183-22 abrasive blasting;paint removal;steel structure painting industry abrasive blaster;auxiliary equipment operators;blaster helper;site clean-up workers lead;silica 18312A;18313A;18314A;18315A;18316A;18317A;18322 183-12-A;183-13-A;183-14-A;183-15A;183-16-A;183-17-A;183-22
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Local Exhaust Ventilation SystemsRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
155 dust control;LEV systems;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Moving Air to the Mining Face – Maintaining Curtain/Tubing Setback DistanceThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
156 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Preventing Asthma and Death from MDI Exposure During Spray-on Truck Bed Liner ApplicationsIsocyanates are the leading attributable chemical cause of occupational asthma in the United States and many other industrialized countries [Tarlo et al. 1997]. The most widely used isocyanates are diisocyanates. Diisocyanates are a group of low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic compounds that contain two isocyanates groups. The most common of these are toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). They are widely used in the manufacture of flexible and rigid foams, fibers, coatings such as paints and varnishes, and elastomers. Diisocyanates are increasingly used in the automobile industry, autobody repair, and building insulation materials. Spray-on polyurethane products containing isocyanates have been developed for a wide range of retail, commercial, and industrial uses to protect cement, wood, fiberglass, steel and aluminum, including protective coatings for trailers, boats, foundations, and decks, and truck beds.

It has been estimated that there are more than 3,000 spray-on truck bed-lining facilities in the United States, most of which are small businesses with fewer than five employees. These facilities are sometimes operated without the benefit of environmental and engineering controls to protect the sprayer from the adverse health effects of exposure to aerosolized MDI. Conservative estimates indicate that more than 10,000 workers are employed in the spray-on bed lining industry nationwide. Press releases from two of the major truck bed liner companies indicate that the spray-on bed liner industry is rapidly growing.
157 294-11A and auto dealerships;auto body centers;spray-on truck bed specialty shops spray gun users;truck bed sprayers and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI);Diisocyanates: toluene diisocyanate (TDI);methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) 29411A 294-11A
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Methane Monitoring – Measuring Methanometers Response TimesThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
158 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Methane Monitoring – Methane Sampling Strategy, Sampling on the Mining MachineThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
159 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Methane Monitoring – Methanometers, Catalytic Heat and Combustion SensorsThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
160 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Guidelines for the Control and Monitoring of Methane Gas on Continuous Mining Operations – Methane Monitoring – Methanometers, Use in Underground Coal MinesThe introduction of conventional mining methods, which increased the rate of mining, was an important step in the mechanization of mining. The intermittent nature of the conventional mining process halted the extraction process for ore-loading and usually allowed time for methane gas to be dispersed. However, the introduction of continuous mining machines in the 1940s produced a constant flow of ore from the working face of the mine and resulted in an increase in methane levels.

The number of face ignitions increased as more continuous mining machines were placed underground. Methane levels were found to be dangerously high. In some cases, methane concentrations measured 20 ft from the mining face exceeded the lower explosive limit (5% by volume) [USBM 1958]. The need for better face area ventilation was recognized to reduce the potential for explosions.
161 coal mining;continuous mining operations;deep-cut mining miners methane gas
Dust Protection for Bag StackersMineral processing plants in the United States process material that is finely ground and placed into bags for shipping to the consumer. These bags normally range from 50 to 100 pounds in weight. Once the material is placed in these bags, a worker, known as a bag stacker, loads the bags onto pallets. A bag stacker is exposed to dust that is mainly released by the force from loading the bag onto the pallet. The two main sources are the dust on the outside of the bag and the dust that escapes from inside the bag as it is loaded.162 333131 bag stackers;mineral processing;pneumoconiosis bag stackers;mineral processing;pneumoconiosis bag stackers;mineral processing;pneumoconiosis
Motor Generator Set – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Operation of a motor generator set caused a 94-dBA sound level at a position 5 ft from the unit, giving rise to complaints from nearby workers.
163 335312 motor generator;noise;noise control motor generator;noise;noise control motor generator;noise;noise control
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mucking OperationsRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.

Silica refers to the chemical compound silicon dioxide (SiO2), which occurs in a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form [NIOSH 2002]. Silica is a common component of rocks; consequently, mine workers are potentially exposed to silica dust when rock is cut, drilled, crushed, and transported.
164 metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing;stone mining;underground mines blasting;crushing;drilling;hauling;loading;miners;mining crystalline silica;respirable dust
Vessel Downflooding Prevention – Multi-level Flood SensorIn 2008, over 8 billion pounds of seafood was harvested in the United States earning over $4.4 billion. There are approximately 115,000 harvesters in the United States using a variety of different fishing gear and vessels [NOAA 2010]. Species that contributed the most to this revenue include shrimp, Pacific salmon, pollock and lobster.

Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Many commercial fishing operations are characterized by hazardous working conditions, strenuous labor, long work hours and harsh weather. During 1992-2008, an annual average of 58 deaths occurred (128 deaths per 100,000 workers), compared with an average of 5,894 deaths (4 per 100,000 workers) among all U.S. workers [DOL 2010].
165 commercial fishing fishermen cross-compartment flooding;downflooding;vessel capsizing;vessel rollover
Nail-Making Machine – Noise Control StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: A nail-making machine was operating under conditions causing severe impacts. The vibration was solidly transmitted to a weak concrete floor, which radiated considerable noise. There were 10 machines, operating at 300 strokes/min. Operator sound level was 103.5 dBA.
166 333513 nail manufacture;nail-making machine;noise;noise control nail manufacture;nail-making machine;noise;noise control nail manufacture;nail-making machine;noise;noise control
Nail Salons – Control of Ethyl Methacrylate Exposures During the Application of Artificial FingernailsThe technique for application of artificial fingernails started in the late 1950s, but became popular in the early 1970s when manicurists began applying methyl methacrylate dental acrylic to fingernails to strengthen natural nails or create artificial nails [Gorton 1993]. Since then, artificial nail application has grown steadily. In 1993, there were 33,000 salons that did nails exclusively. This number did not include salons that perform artificial nail services in addition to offering other services (hair, massages, etc.). In 1993, there were 190,000 nail technicians, an increase of 9 percent from the previous year. The projected dollars spent for artificial nails and extensions was almost three billion dollars in 1993, more than double the total dollars spent for these services in 1989 [Drummey 1993].

In 1987, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) initiated the SENSOR (Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks) program, a cooperative state-federal effort designed to develop local capability for the recognition reporting, follow-up, and prevention of selected occupational disorders. In 1990, the Colorado Department of Health identified three cases of asthma in cosmetologists. Artificial nail application appeared to be a common factor in these occupational asthma cases. As a part of the SENSOR program, Colorado requested NIOSH assistance in the evaluation and control of nail salon technician exposure.
167 812113 171-22A asthma;cosmetologists;nail salons asthma;cosmetologists;nail salons asthma;cosmetologists;nail salons 17122A 171-22A
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Background Issues – Open-Structure DesignRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
168 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mines and Mineral Processing Operations – Enclosed Cabs, Operator Booths, Control RoomsRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
169 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Background Issues – Overhead Air Supply SystemRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
170 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Packaging/Bagging Product for ShipmentRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
171 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing bag loaders;mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Control of Silica Dust Exposure in Pottery ManufacturingHealth department surveillance data indicate the largest number of silicosis cases in the state of New Jersey exist in the sand mining and processing, foundry, and pottery (sanitary ware) industries. This disease is caused by exposure to crystalline silica in these industries.

The operation described in the primary and follow-up reports summarized here manufactures vitreous china products, such as lavatories and toilet bowls. The work force at this plant consists of approximately 150 employees, including 30 salaried and 120 hourly workers.

Vitreous china is a specialized type of ceramics. Raw materials are combined to form a clay slip. The slip poured into a plaster mold to form a casting, and the casting is then shaped, dried, glazed, and fired. The principal raw materials in the slip are clay (hydrated aluminum silicates), feldspar (alkaline aluminum silicates), and flint (crystalline silica). One or more glaze coats (containing crystalline silica) are sprayed onto the molded greenware prior to firing in a tunnel kiln.

All production work in the subject operation is carried out in one building. After the pieces have been fired, they are inspected and packaged. Pieces having a blemish are sent to the Refire Department to be repaired and refired. Production areas having a potential for silica exposure include the Slip House, Cast Shop, Mold Shop, Spray Area, and the Kiln, Glaze, and Refire Departments.

The cast shop consists of approximately 50 workstations with one worker per station. Casters start the shift by pouring slip from a hose into several rows of plaster molds, which had been set up the previous day. After casting, the slip is allowed to set (typically an hour or more) before the molds are removed. After the molds are removed, they are dusted with a parting compound. The pieces are dried for several hours, smoothed and trimmed using an assortment of hand tools, and then dried further for one to two days. Because of limited storage space, the castings are stored on carts in and around the casting area while they are drying. At night, waste heat from the kilns is directed to this area to enhance drying. The entire casting area, therefore, may be considered a large drying area. In addition to drying greenware, dust and pieces of scrap clay on the floor become thoroughly dried, presenting an opportunity for reentrainment into the air and adding appreciably to the likelihood of a high background dust level.

The dried pieces are carted from the Casting Department to the Spray Department, where nine to twelve employees are involved in piece inspection and glaze spraying. One or more coats of glaze (depending on the type of fixture) are applied in ventilated spray booths by means of a compressed-air spray system.

The liquid glaze is prepared in the Glaze Department by two workers mixing Supersil powder (crystalline silica), feldspar, whiting, Pyrax, China clay, talc, and other color producing compounds. Bags of material are dumped manually into one of several pebble mill blenders. In dumping the bags of material, the operator climbs up a portable ladder. The bags of material are placed on a pallet and elevated behind the operator by a fork lift. The operator turns around, takes one bag at a time, and holds each bag near the manway to the pebble mill (which is at shoulder height and even with the ladder). He cuts the bag with a knife, manually dumps it into the pebble mill and manually compresses the bag. (Visible dust is forced from the bag.) The mix is milled overnight and the glaze is then pumped to holding tanks for final adjustment and storage prior to use in the Spray Department.
172 327112 171-11B;171-11C ceramics;glazing;pottery;respirable dust;Silica;silicosis ceramics;glazing;pottery;respirable dust;Silica;silicosis ceramics;glazing;pottery;respirable dust;silica;silicosis 17111B;17111C 171-11B;171-11C
Controlling Cleaning-solvent Vapors at Small PrintersPress operators and other workers in printing establishments are exposed to airborne solvent vapors generated when the press is cleaned.173 commercial printing;press operators;press-cleaning solutions;solvents commercial printing;press operators;press-cleaning solutions;solvents commercial printing;press operators;press-cleaning solutions;solvents
Printing and Cutting Press – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: In the manufacture of folding cartons, one method is to print the cartons in a web, using multiple gravure color stations and feeding the printed web into a reciprocation cutting press.

The reciprocation cutting press, using a rule die, cuts the cartons and delivers cut cartons to a delivery belt. The rotary printing operation was not noisy, but the cutting press noise from the cutting head was in the range of 93 to 95 dBA at the normal operator position. The take-off operators were far enough from the noise source so that noise at their station was below 90 dBA.
174 333293 cutting press;noise;noise control;printing cutting press;noise;noise control;printing cutting press;noise;noise control;printing
Recreational Boats: Carbon Monoxide Exposure – Propulsion Engines Emission Controls (Exhaust Configurations)Epidemiologic studies have found that from 1990 to 2004, there have been approximately 540 carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings associated with exhaust from gasoline-powered marine engines on recreational boats. Two hundred and twenty-five of the poisonings occurred on non-houseboats (other types of recreational boats) [DOI 2004].

There are approximately 17 million recreational boats used in the United States. Based upon the results of studies by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), it is very likely that many of these gasoline-powered engines produce hazardous CO concentrations. The data collected in the one NIOSH study (171-31a) show that nearly 90% of the evaluated boat engines produced hazardous CO concentrations, and CO poisonings could occur from use of these engines under certain conditions.

There are a variety of towed water sport activities in which CO exposures may occur. CO exposures are related to the distance behind the boat, height from the water, and operating speed. The most common of these sports are tubing, teak surfing, water skiing, wakeboarding, wake surfing, and knee boarding.
175 336612 171-05EE2;171-31A;171-35A;171-37A;289-11A carbon monoxide;catalytic convertors;control technology;recreational boats;ski boats carbon monoxide;catalytic convertors;control technology;recreational boats;ski boats carbon monoxide;catalytic convertors;control technology;recreational boats;ski boats 17105EE2;17131A;17135A;17137A;28911A 171-05EE2;171-31A;171-35A;171-37A;289-11A
Recreational Boats: Carbon Monoxide Exposure – Propulsion Engines Emission Controls (Catalytic Convertors)Epidemiologic studies have found that from 1990 to 2004, there have been approximately 540 carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings associated with exhaust from gasoline-powered marine engines on recreational boats. Two hundred and twenty-five of the poisonings occurred on non-houseboats (other types of recreational boats) [DOI 2004].

There are approximately 17 million recreational boats used in the United States. Based upon the results of studies by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), approximately 90% of evaluated recreational boats produced potentially hazardous CO concentrations. When boats were tested during stationary conditions, the CO concentrations were high at the stern (500 to 1,000 ppm). In addition, cabin cruiser measurements ranged from 800 to 1,000 ppm on the lower deck.

There are a variety of towed water sport activities in which CO exposures may occur. CO exposures are related to the distance behind the boat, height from the water, and operating speed. The most common of these sports are tubing, teak surfing, water skiing, wakeboarding, wake surfing, and knee boarding.
176 336612 289-12A carbon monoxide;catalytic convertors;control technology;recreational boats;ski boats carbon monoxide;catalytic convertors;control technology;recreational boats;ski boats carbon monoxide;catalytic convertors;control technology;recreational boats;ski boats 28912A 289-12A
Engineering Solutions: Prototype Slack Tank MonitorIn 2008, over 8 billion pounds of seafood was harvested in the United States earning over $4.4 billion. There are approximately 115,000 harvesters in the United States using a variety of different fishing gear and vessels [NOAA 2010]. Species that contributed the most to this revenue include shrimp, Pacific salmon, pollock and lobster.

Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Many commercial fishing operations are characterized by hazardous working conditions, strenuous labor, long work hours and harsh weather. During 1992-2008, an annual average of 58 deaths occurred (128 deaths per 100,000 workers), compared with an average of 5,894 deaths (4 per 100,000 workers) among all U.S. workers [DOL 2010].
177 commercial fishing fishermen ship instability;vessel capsizing;vessel rollover
Punch Press 1 – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Two Minster model P2-2000, 200-ton straightside presses were running over 250 strokes/min when stamping out laminations for a particular motor model. The press is located in a metal construction building. Dies are changed often.
178 noise;noise control;punch press noise;noise control;punch press noise;noise control;punch press
Punch Press 2 – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: This case study concerns high-speed (approximately 1200 strokes/ min) Bruderer punch presses which are centrally located in a 20-m by 30-m steel building. Operation of the 40- and 70- ton presses causes OSHA noise over-exposures of the three workers in the general area around the press, as well as two press operators.

The presses were clearly identified as the cause of the noise problem because sound levels were low when the presses were not operating and between 95 dBA and 100 dBA, depending on proximity to the units, when they were in operation.
179 333513 noise;noise control;punch press noise;noise control;punch press noise;noise control;punch press
Silica Dust Exposure Control in Industrial Sand Processing Operations.The operations in the case report supplies washed sand mainly to the glass industry but also for other industrial uses. Reports from three sites were used to create this summary.

Site A:

In the first factory, dredges are used to mine sand from flooded areas under the topsoil, typically reaching depths of 50 feet. The sand/water slurry is pumped to a scalper to remove rocks and slime from the slurry. It is then pumped to holding tanks.

In the process building, the sand is sized by settling (coarse fraction removed), dewatered (clay removed), passed through a scrubber, again dewatered by two parallel screws, and then passed through a flotation circuit (iron impurities removed). A ball milling step can be added to the process for size reduction. One operator and one helper work in the processing building.

After processing, the wet sand is conveyed outside and stockpiled in the open. A front-end loader moves the sand to a covered belt conveyor, which transports it 1,000 feet to the sand drying and loading area. Damp sand discharges from the covered belt conveyor into a bucket elevator which transports the sand to the dryer. The sand is dried, screened, and transported by a second bucket elevator to a screw conveyor which empties into one of three concrete silos. Sand can be loaded directly from the silos through one of three uncontrolled (non-ventilated) loading spouts into railroad hopper cars or one uncontrolled loading spout into trucks. Sand is also transported by screw conveyor from the bottom of the silos to a third bucket elevator which empties into two elevated hopper bins each equipped with a controlled (ventilated) loading spout. One spout is used for finish filling of railroad cars and the other spout is used for filling trucks. (Typically, the uncontrolled spouts are used to pre-fill railroad cars and the controlled spouts are used for the final filling of railroad cars and the complete filling of trucks. The uncontrolled spout is normally not used to fill trucks.)

Total railroad and truck shipments represent approximately equal tonnage.

The truck loading area consists of a bulk sand hopper bin, an uncontrolled loading spout (not in use), a controlled enclosed-type retractable spout, truck scales, and an enclosed control room. One operator spends the shift filling several different types of trucks at this station. (The same operator also fills railroad cars.) The job sequence is as follows: An empty truck stops on the truck scales beneath the loading spout. The loader operator, from within an elevated control room, lowers the spout either into the open truck, down to the hatch on a hopper truck, or down to the center rib of cross ribbed truck and starts the sand to flow. In open trucks, the spout remains a few inches above the top of the sand pile in the truck and is retracted as the sand pile rises, When the sand pile reaches the desired height, the sand flow is stopped, the truck moves forward a few feet, the spout is lowered, and loading resumes. This process is repeated until the truck is filled, with the load being distributed throughout the truck.

For hopper trucks, the spout remains a few inches above the open hatch. This permits visual observation from the control room into the truck, so as to reduce the risk of spillage from overfilling. As the truck fills, the sand flow is stopped, the spout raised, the truck moved forward, the spout lowered down to the next open hatch, and loading resumed until the truck is filled. For trucks with ribs (no longitudinal rib) the spout is usually lowered between the ribs and filled like the open truck. When the sand reaches the desired height in the truck, flow is stopped, the spout retracted above the ribs, and the truck moved forward. The spout is lowered again and loading resumed. For trucks with a longitudinal rib, the spout is lowered down to this rib and the sand flows over this rib into the truck. As the truck fills, sand flow is stopped to allow the truck to move forward, and resumed until the truck is filled. For open top trucks, a tarp is stretched over the trailer and tied down before leaving the site. It takes approximately 5 minutes to load 50,000 pounds (500 cubic feet) of sand (an average load for most trucks).

The railroad car loading area consists of three uncontrolled loading spouts, a bulk sand storage hopper bin, a controlled enclosed-type retractable spout with horizontal travel capability, scales, and an enclosed control room. The same operator that fills trucks also fills several different types of railroad hopper cars at this station. The job sequence is as follows: Prior to filling, the hatches are opened; the cars inspected and if needed, washed out; and then positioned alongside the silos. Preliminary filling is done from an uncontrolled spout (a flexible hose with a metal pipe fitted with a gate) directly from one of the three silos. The spout is positioned over the open hatch and sand flows by gravity into the car. When the portion of the car under the open hatch is filled, the flow is stopped, the car moved forward, the hatch just filled through is closed, and the flow resumed into the next open hatch. It takes approximately 45 minutes to load 100 tons of sand from the uncontrolled spout.

When the railroad car is nearly full, flow is stopped, all hatches except the last one filled through have been closed, and the car is moved forward under the controlled spout. The operator, standing on an open platform overlooking the top of the car, positions the spout over the open hatch and lowers it to the hatch. Then, the operator, from the enclosed control room at ground level, adds the last of the sand to complete the car's load. The spout is retracted, the hatch closed, and a front-end loader moves the car to a pickup area. It usually takes less than a minute to top off each car using the controlled spout.

The front-end loader operator operates an enclosed cab rubber-tired loader at different locations throughout the facility. This worker may transfer damp sand from the stockpile to the covered belt conveyor, move empty and filled railroad cars, and whatever else may be needed.

The major hazard associated with this operation is inhalation of crystalline silica during certain dry operations (loading and filling, screening). Dust sources were located near the screen, the top of the dryer, at the bucket elevator discharge into the screw conveyor at the top of the silos, and on top of the hopper bin above the truck scales.

Short-term real-time measurements identified work practices that could affect dust exposure in the truck loading area. Real-time measurements show that the proper use of the spout can greatly reduce the amount of dust generated during truck filling. The type of truck being filled is a major factor in the effectiveness of the spout. Trucks with longitudinal ribs defeat the purpose of the loading spout by not allowing it to be lowered past the ribs to the bottom of the truck. As a result, sand flows over the rib, is dispersed, and entraps air as it free falls into the truck, thus increasing the amount of dust generated. This can also be a factor in cross rib-type trucks when the spout is positioned over a rib. When the spout is lowered to the bottom of the truck and maintained near the top of the sand pile as it discharges into the truck, the free fall distance through open air is reduced to a few inches, thus reducing the amount of air entrapped and the resultant dust generated. When loading hopper trucks, sand free falls up to 8 feet inside an enclosed container which contains most of the dust generated.

Both uncontrolled (nonventilated) spouts and controlled (ventilated) spouts are used at this operation. A comparison of the two types of spouts indicates that potential dust exposures during loading operations could be reduced by 90% with the elimination of the nonventilated spouts.

During the sampling visit, the highest area concentration (0.77 mg/m3 respirable quartz) occurred on the catwalk on top of a railroad hopper car during filling using an uncontrolled loading spout, indicating the need for revision of this operation. In the sand screening area, one of three samples exceeded the NIOSH REL (0.07 mg/m3); none exceeded the MSHA PEL.

Site B:

The factory making up site 2 no longer contains sand suitable for use in glass manufacture; instead foundry and multipurpose sands of a wide range of sizes are produced. Sand is shipped from the plant via truck (rather than by truck and rail) in bulk or in bags.

Sand is dredged from ponds and pumped to a holding tank. The sand is washed, then classified according to size by a flume, which transfers the sized product into storage piles. Sand from storage is moved by front-end loader to one of two somewhat different drying plants.

Dryer #l is a fuel oil-fired rotary kiln equipped with a wet scrubber. Sand from dryer #l is classified by one or more of 12 vibrating screens, discharged to bins located below the screens and above the loading area. A blending site is also located beneath the bins adjacent to truck loading. Sands are blended by the manual opening of slide gates, allowing one or more size sands to fall onto a belt conveyor. An infinite range of sand sizes in the final product are possible. The blended sand is conveyed to hoppers and loaded into trucks by gravity feed. The blending and loading operation at dryer #l is a major source of sand (quartz) emissions at this plant.

Dryer #2 consists of a series of three fluidized bed dryers discharging to one of two vibrating screens. Screened sand is conveyed to one of five silos and loaded into trucks using a ventilated loading spout, enclosed in a separate, drive-through enclosure. Alternatively, dried sand can be conveyed to the screening operations located by dryer #l. Air from the fluidized beds is cleaned in a bag house, and the waste dust pneumatically transported to a dust disposal station. (A ventilated loading spout is used at the disposal station).

Although dust exposure is unlikely in the wet processing areas in this plant, the drying and loading operations are areas of potential overexposure in this and other plants within the industry. The bulk loading area in dryer plant #l is particularly troublesome. Unvented truck loading, conveyor transfer points, and blending points are located in a small, confined area.

Site C:

The plant produces foundry sand, glass sand, and 230 mesh ground sand for pigments. Foundry sand is a newer product and has been produced only since 1987. Sand is shipped from the plant in bulk via truck or rail. The plant employs 48 workers and operates on three shifts, but is closed on weekends. Operational areas include dredging, wet processing, drying and bulk loading, and maintenance. In addition, the plant has a small milling operation in which we were particularly interested.

Sand is dredged from ponds 5 miles from the processing plant and pumped to holding tanks. The sand is then sent to the wet process area, where it is sized in centrifuges, washed in screw classifiers and scrubbers, cleaned of fines and clays using rake classifiers, and cleaned of iron by chemical flotation. The sand then passes through a hydrocyclone, is dewatered by vacuum filtration, and transferred to the damp storage tanks. The wet operations are performed under roof. The sand is next dried in a rotary kiln, classified by one or more vibrating screens, discharged to an elevator, and bulk loaded into either rail cars or trucks. Plant employees load only the rail cars, while the truck drivers load the trucks. Both ventilated and unventilated loading spouts are used.

A portion of the sand from the screens is diverted to the milling process. One pebble mill is operational, while the other mills are permanently shut down. One worker is assigned to the mill and he spends most of his time in an isolated control room.

As with Sites A and B, since the dredging and processing operations at Site C are performed wet, the greatest silica exposure hazard appears to occur in drying and loading.
180 212322 171-12A;171-12B;171-13A;171-14A aerosol photometers;glass sand mining;Industrial sand;loading spouts;manual materials handling.;real-time monitoring;respirable dust;silicosis aerosol photometers;glass sand mining;Industrial sand;loading spouts;manual materials handling.;real-time monitoring;respirable dust;silicosis aerosol photometers;glass sand mining;Industrial sand;loading spouts;manual materials handling.;real-time monitoring;respirable dust;silicosis 17112A;17112B;17113A;17114A 171-12A;171-12B;171-13A;171-14A
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – ScreeningRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
181 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Screen-print Industry – Ergonomic Squeegee HandlesWorkers in the screen-printing industry use wooden-handled squeegees to force ink through a screen and into a substrate. The industry standard handle is approximately 1 inch wide and is grasped in both hands using a pinch grip. The narrowness of the grip requires forceful contractions by muscles in the forearm and wrist. When the user exerts significant downward forces with the handle, the handle places pressure on the mid-palm of the hands, causing possible compression of the median nerve.182 313312 carpal tunnel syndrome;screen-printing;squeegee handles carpal tunnel syndrome;screen-printing;squeegee handles carpal tunnel syndrome;screen-printing;squeegee handles
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Background Issues – Secondary Dust SourcesRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
183 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Speed Control Device – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: The speed control for a rapid transit system controls the train speed by electronically varying the voltage delivered to the traction motor. Basically, the speed control (illustrated in Figure 1) consists of a main box that houses the electronic components: a scrubber blower that is used as part of the air cleaning system, and a fan-cooled motor that is used to drive the main blower.
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184 485112 noise control;rapid transit;speed control system noise control;rapid transit;speed control system noise control;rapid transit;speed control system
Spiral Vibratory Elevator – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Spiral vibratory elevators are used as part of the handling equipment to cool hot processed ingredients while lifting them from one level to another 6 m higher at a pet foods factory. The sound level in the immediate vicinity of the elevators is 104 dBA. Plant management aimed at reducing elevator noise to below that of the existing workshop ambient level of 84 dBA.
185 311111 elevator noise;noise control;pet food elevator noise;noise control;pet food elevator noise;noise control;pet food
Stamping Press – Noise Control StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: This case history concerns noise emissions caused by operation of a high-speed 290-ton stamping press. Sound levels in the vicinity of the press were high enough to contribute to OSHA noise over-exposures of workers near the press as well as of the press operator. Sound levels were found to be in the 95-dBA to 101-dBA continuous slow meter response, at distances of 15 to 25 ft from the operating press when it was the only noise source operating. (Distances were chosen to represent possible nearby worker locations.)
186 327420 noise control;press operator;stamping press noise control;press operator;stamping press noise control;press operator;stamping press
Steam Generator Feed Pump – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: Steam generator feed pumps are generally considered to be one of the principal sources of high sound levels inside electric power plants. This case history describes the noise control work associated with the two boiler feeds at a coal-fired electric power plant.

The pumps produced a high level of tonal noise. The pump tone was within the 1,000-Hz octave band and, because of its high level (100 to 105 dB near the pump), it impacted the A-weighted sound level throughout the turbine hall.

The owner of this plant had decided to study the feasibility of reducing plant sound levels to less than 90 dBA in all frequently occupied areas and to adopt this sound level as a design goal for noise control treatments. The turbine hall is a frequently occupied area of the plant and, because of the boiler feed pump, the sound levels varied from about 92 to 98 dBA.
187 221112 electric power plant;noise control;steam generator feed pump electric power plant;noise control;steam generator feed pump electric power plant;noise control;steam generator feed pump
Steel Wire Fabric Machine – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: This 8-ft fabric machine manufactures wire netting spaced at 6 in, starting with individual wires from large spools that run through the length of the machine. A perpendicular wire, known as staywire, is fed across at 6-in intervals and spot-welded at each intersection. This staywire is then cut off at the left-hand side of the machine. The long wires are then moved through the machine another 6 in, and the staywire operation is repeated. This machine produces 6 x 6 in No. 8 or No. 10 wire netting, which is used as concrete reinforcement in the home building industry. The machine is made by Keystone Steel and Wire Company.

At the operator position, the sound level was found to be 99 dBA and 102 dBC, indicating low-frequency components. This kind of noise is very unpleasant. The daily noise dose was found to be 2.5; the acceptable level is 1.0 (see Figure 1).
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188 fabric machine;noise control;steel wire manufacturing fabric machine;noise control;steel wire manufacturing fabric machine;noise control;steel wire manufacturing
Straight-and-Cut Machines – Noise Case StudyOverview: The case history presented here is one of sixty-one case histories that were published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 1978 as part of an industrial noise control manual [NIOSH 1979]. The case histories are examples of engineering tasks that have been completed not only by professional noise control engineers but also by non-acoustical specialists who used common sense to solve their noise problems. The case histories were chosen primarily because the amount of noise reduction actually achieved was measured. Such engineering results, even if not directly applicable to a specific situation, illustrate general principles that may point the way to a successful result. They are intended to be useful to production and safety engineers, health personnel, and other factory personnel who are not specialists in noise control.

Case study: The straight-and-cut machine straightens heavy-gauge wire in an in-feed to a cutoff unit set to cut repeat lengths, resulting in sound levels of 92 dBA at the operator position, with the cutting cycle sound level at 92 dBA (idling cycle at only 83 dBA), indicating that the dominant noise source of the clutch cutter mechanism is the same form as in the close-in diagnostic measurements. Comparison of the measured sound pressure levels with the 90-dBA criterion indicates the required attenuation is between 5 and 11 dB in the 1000- to 8000-Hz octave bands.
189 333512 noise control;straight-and-cut machine;wire manufacturing noise control;straight-and-cut machine;wire manufacturing noise control;straight-and-cut machine;wire manufacturing
Stump Cutter Machine safety – Developing an Operator Presence SystemStump cutter safety involves many elements of machine design and safe operating practices. Manufacturers and dealerships provide extensive documentation on the proper operation and safe use of stump cutter machines. ANSI Z133.1-2006 requires that stump cutters be equipped with enclosures and guards to reduce the risk of injury. It also states that operators shall keep the enclosures and guards in place when stump cutters are operative [ANSI 2006].190 561730 capacitive-sensing;injury prevention;landscaping services;machine safety;stump cutter;stump removal;traumatic injuries;tree removal capacitive-sensing;injury prevention;landscaping services;machine safety;stump cutter;stump removal;traumatic injuries;tree removal capacitive-sensing;injury prevention;landscaping services;machine safety;stump cutter;stump removal;traumatic injuries;tree removal
Styrene Exposure: Fiberglass-reinforced Plastic Boat ManufacturingStyrene is an important component in the manufacture of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) boats. Vapors from the application and curing process used to make FRP boats may pose an inhalation exposure hazard for workers near the process. According to the 2004 Statistics of U.S. Businesses, 51,409 workers were employed in the boat manufacturing industry (most of which were involved in FRP manufacturing), with 26,633 in firms of 500 employees or less.191 326199 306-11A;306-11B;306-13A;306-14B;306-15A;306-16A;306-17A;306-18A;306-19A;306-19B fiberglass;plastic boat manufacturing;styrene fiberglass;plastic boat manufacturing;styrene fiberglass;plastic boat manufacturing;styrene 30611A;30611B;30613A;30614B;30615A;30616A;30617A;30618A;30619A;30619B 306-11A;306-11B;306-13A;306-14B;306-15A;306-16A;306-17A;306-18A;306-19A;306-19B
Expedient Airborne Infection IsolationNIOSH has conducted research on airborne infection isolation based on a well-documented acknowledgment of insufficient engineered airborne infection isolation capacity within the United States healthcare system. This coincided with an increased awareness of the threat demonstrated by terrorism concerns, recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the ongoing evolution of influenza virus strains, and documented respirator shortages that could occur during a moderately-prolonged airborne infectious epidemic.192 622110 engineering controls;expedient airborne isolation;healthcare workers;infectious agents engineering controls;expedient airborne isolation;healthcare workers;infectious agents engineering controls;expedient airborne isolation;healthcare workers;infectious agents
Control of Smoke from Laser/Electrical Surgical ProceduresDuring surgical procedures using a laser or electrosurgical unit, the thermal destruction of tissue creates a smoke byproduct.193 laser/electrosurgical procedures healthcare personnel;nurses;physicians benzene;bioaerosols including viruses;formaldehyde;hydrogen cyanide;mutagens
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Total Mill Ventilation SystemsRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.
194 dust control;metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing;ventilation mineral mining;miners crystalline silica;respirable dust
Best Practices for Dust Control in Metal/Nonmetal Mining – Mineral Processing Operations – Transfer PointsRespirable crystalline silica dust exposure has long been known to be a serious health threat to workers in many industries and occupations. Workers with high exposure to crystalline silica include miners, sandblasters, tunnel workers, silica millers, quarry workers, foundry workers, and ceramics and glass workers Overexposure to respirable crystalline silica dust can has been associated with development of silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and airways disease.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published experimental and epidemiologic studies of cancer in animals and workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica and concluded that there was sufficient evidence to classify silica as a human carcinogen [IARC 1997]. Silicosis is also a fibrosing disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation, retention, and pulmonary reaction to the crystalline silica. When silicosis becomes symptomatic, the primary symptom is usually dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing and/or shortness of breath), first noted with activity or exercise and later, as the functional reserve of the lung is also lost, at rest. Once contracted, there is no cure for silicosis. The goal, therefore, is to limit worker exposure to respirable dust to prevent development of these diseases.

Silica refers to the chemical compound silicon dioxide (SiO2), which occurs in a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form [NIOSH 2002]. Silica is a common component of rocks; and; throughout the mineral processing cycle, mined ore goes through a number of crushing, grinding, cleaning, drying, and product-sizing sequences as it is processed into a marketable commodity. Because these operations are highly mechanized, they are able to process high tonnages of ore. This in turn can generate large quantities of dust, often containing elevated levels of respirable crystalline silica, which can be liberated into the work environment.
195 metal/nonmetal mining;mineral processing;transfer point or chute mineral mining;miners;transfer point crystalline silica;respirable dust
Transformer (1) – Noise Case StudyOverview: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published an industrial noise control manual in 1978 [NIOSH 1979]. As part of this manual, a number of general noise control methods were provided. These methods are meant to reduce the amount of sound energy released by the noise source, or divert the flow of (sound) energy away from the receivers, or protect the receivers from (sound) energy reaching them. The key to noise control is finding the control that is both and economical. One of the general noise control methods provided in the NIOSH noise control manual is summarized in this write-up.

Case study: This case history discusses noise control treatments that were included in the design of a new electric station and evaluates their effectiveness.

A 345/115-kilowatt substation, designed for an 11-acre site located in a mixed commercial/residential area in New England, was to include two 300 MVA OA/FOA/FOA autotransformers and an oil-to-air heat exchanger for the underground 345-kilowatt line. Standard National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (NEMA) sound levels for transformers of this class are 84/86/87 dBA. The heat exchanger contains two 8-ft-diameter, 4-bladed, propeller-type fans, driven at 364 rpm by one 1-hp motor per fan. The fans are rated at 0.135 in. of water static pressure and 51,700 actual cfm air flow.
196 community noise control;electrical transformer;noise control community noise control;electrical transformer;noise control community noise control;electrical transformer;noise control
Transformer (2) – Noise Case StudyOverview: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published an industrial noise control manual in 1978 [NIOSH 1979]. As part of this manual, a number of general noise control methods were provided. These methods are meant to reduce the amount of sound energy released by the noise source, or divert the flow of (sound) energy away from the receivers, or protect the receivers from (sound) energy reaching them. The key to noise control is finding the control that is both and economical. One of the general noise control methods provided in the NIOSH noise control manual is summarized in this write-up.

Case study: A transformer at the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority (PRWRA), Santa Maria Substation, Ponce, Puerto Rico, is located just 22 ft from a neighboring home. The people living next to the substation complained about the noise radiated by the transformer.
197 community noise control;electrical transformer;noise control community noise control;electrical transformer;noise control community noise control;electrical transformer;noise control
Engineering Solutions for Winch DesignIn 2008, over 8 billion pounds of seafood was harvested in the United States earning over $4.4 billion. There are approximately 115,000 harvesters in the United States using a variety of different fishing gear and vessels [NOAA 2010]. Species that contributed the most to this revenue include shrimp, Pacific salmon, pollock and lobster.

Commercial fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Many commercial fishing operations are characterized by hazardous working conditions, strenuous labor, long work hours and harsh weather. During 1992-2008, an annual average of 58 deaths occurred (128 deaths per 100,000 workers), compared with an average of 5,894 deaths (4 per 100,000 workers) among all U.S. workers [DOL 2010]. In Alaska, fatal deck injuries are even more prevalent, accounting for 12% of all fatalities during 2000–2006 [NIOSH 2007a].
198 commercial fishing fishermen deck equipment dangers;winch hazards
Field Evaluation of the NIOSH Mini-Baghouse Assembly Generation 3 for Control of Silica Dust on Sand MoversNIOSH researchers collected personal breathing zone air samples for workers at 11 hydraulic fracturing sites in 2010 and 2011. Job classification was associated with exposures to silica. Sand Mover and Transfer Belt Operators had the highest exposures to RCS, due to their proximity to point sources of sand dust generation. Exposures of Sand Mover Operators were sometimes over ten times higher than occupational exposure limits, exceeding the assigned protection factor (APF) of 10 for half-face elastomeric or filtering-facepiece respirators. In that case, wearing a half-face elastomeric or filtering-facepiece respirator would provide insufficient protection.
Pneumatic transfer of sand enhances generation of silica dust aerosols. NIOSH researchers identified at least seven primary point sources of dust generation/release. They are:
• Thief hatches on top of the sand movers during filling
• Uncapped side fill ports on sand movers during filling
• Vehicular traffic on the site
• Transfer belt under the sand movers
• Sand being dropped or mixed in the belt or blender area
• Transfer belts between the sand movers and the blender
• The end of the sand mover conveyor belt
Several engineering controls were proposed to limit the generation of silica-containing dusts. These included a mini-baghouse assembly on the sand mover hatches, skirting and shrouding at the base of the sand mover and near the conveyor belt, and capping unused fill ports.
199 211111 373-11A;373-12A engineering control;Oil and Gas;Silica Hydraulic fracturing silica 37311A;37312A 373-11A;373-12A
Cutting fiber-cement siding with power saws, crystalline silica exposureFiber-cement siding, a construction material that has grown in popularity in recent years, contains crystalline silica and when cut with power saws, can create fine dust particles that a worker can inhale. One study by Lofgren et al. [2004] reported that cutters’ uncontrolled exposures to respirable crystalline silica can be up to 3.4 times the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for respirable crystalline silica of 0.05 mg/m3. In an in-depth field survey, Qi et al. [2013] also reported that a cutter’s uncontrolled exposure to respirable crystalline silica resulted in an exposure up to 2.6 times the NIOSH REL. In May 2016, OSHA published a new permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.05 mg/m3 as an 8-hr time weighted average (TWA) for respirable crystalline silica [81 Fed. Reg. 16285, 2016], making it critical to address these overexposures.200 238170 358-11A;358-12A;358-13A;358-14A;358-15A;358-16A engineering control;Fiber-cement siding;respirable crystalline silica;respirable dust construction;Power Saws Respirable crystalline silica;respirable dust 35811A;35812A;35813A;35814A;35815A;35816A 358-11A;358-12A;358-13A;358-14A;358-15A;358-16A