Interim NIOSH Training for Emergency Responders: Reducing Risks Associated with Long Work Hours

References, Authors & Acknowledgments

References by Section

  • Rusiecki JA, Thomas DL, Chen L, Funk R, McKibben J, Dayton MR [2014]. Disaster-related exposures and health effects among US Coast Guard responders to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: a cross-sectional study. J Occup Environ Med 56(8):820-833.
  • Luyster FS, Strollo PJ Jr, Zee PC, Walsh JK [2012]. Sleep: a health imperative. Sleep 35:727-734.
  • Colten HR, Altevogt BM [2006]. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation an unmet public health problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Rogers Commission [1986]. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. Volume II. Appendix G. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • National Transportation Safety Board [2004]. Grounding of U.S. Tank ship Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound Near Valdez, Alaska, March 04 1989. NTSB/ MAR-90/04, Washington D.C.: NTSB.
  • Schwartz JR, Roth T [2008]. Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness: basic science and clinical implications. Curr Neuropharmacol 64:367-378.
  • National Sleep Foundation. Warning signs of drowsy driving. Accessed on July 11, 2011. [http://drowsydriving.org/about/warning-signs/].
  • Vanlaar W, Simpson H, Mayhew D, Robertson R [2008]. Fatigued and drowsy driving: a survey of attitudes, opinions and behaviors. J Safety Res 39:303-309.
  • Van Dongen HPA, Maislin G, Mullington JM, Dinges DF [2003]. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Sleep 26:117-126.
  • Arnedt JT, Owens J, Crouch M, Stahl J, Carskadon MA [2005]. Neurobehavioral performance of residents after heavy night call vs after alcohol ingestion. JAMA 294:1025-1033.
  • Van Dongen HPA, Belenky G [2009]. Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss in the work environment. Ind Health 47:518-526.
  • Folkard S, Lombardi DA [2006]. Modeling the impact of the components of long work hours on injuries and ‘accidents.’ Am J Ind Med 49:953-963.
  • Dawson D, Reid K [1997]. Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature 388:235.
  • Williamson AM, Feyer AM [2000]. Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occup Environ Med 57:649-655.
  • Howard ME, Jackson ML, Kennedy GA, Swann P, Barnes M, Pierce RJ [2007]. The interactive effects of extended wakefulness and low-dose alcohol on simulated driving and vigilance. Sleep 30:1334-1340.
  • Van Dongen HPA, Belenky G [2009]. Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss in the work environment. Ind Health 47(5):518-526.
  • Czeisler CA [2009]. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 120:249-85.
  • Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack A [2014].A Novel BHLHE41 Variant is Associated with Short Sleep and Resistance to Sleep Deprivation in Humans. Sleep 37(8):1327-1336.
  • Colten HR, Altevogt BM [2006]. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation an unmet public health problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Smolensky MH, Di Milia L, Ohayon MM, Philip P [2011]. Sleep disorders, medical conditions, and road accident risk. Accid Analysis Prevent 43:533-548.
  • Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI [2014]. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. Sleep 37(8):1327-1336.
  • Liu Y, Wheaton AG, Chapman DP, Croft JB 2013. Sleep duration and chronic diseases among US adults age 45 years and older: evidence from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Sleep 36(10):1421-1427.
  • Johns MW [1993]. Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Chest 103:30-36.
  • Zee PC, Turek FW [2006]. Sleep and health: everywhere and in both directions. Arch Intern Med 166:1686-1688.
  • Irwin MR, Mascovich A, Gillin JC, Willoughby R, Pike J, Smith TL [1994]. Partial sleep deprivation reduces natural killer cell activity in humans. Psychosom Med 56(6):493-498.
  • Imai K, Matsuyama S, Miyake S, Suga K, Nakachi K [2000]. Natural cytotoxic activity of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and cancer incidence: an 11-year follow-up study of a general population. Lancet 356(9244):1795-1799.
  • Irwin MR, Wang M, Campomayor CO, Collado-Hidalgo A, Cole S [2006]. Sleep deprivation and activation of morning levels of cellular and genomic markers of inflammation. Arch Intern Med 166(16):1756-1762.
  • Spiegel K, Sheridan JF, Van Cauter E [2002]. Effect of sleep deprivation on response to immunization. JAMA 288(12):1471-1472.
  • Borbely AA [1982]. A two process model of sleep regulation. Human Neurobiology 1: 195-204.
  • Daan S, Beersma DG, Borbely AA [1984]. Timing of human sleep: recovery process gated by a circadian pacemaker. Am J Physiol 246:R161-R183.
  • Scheer FAJL, Shea SA [2009]. Fundamentals of the circadian system. In: Amlaner CJ, Fuller PM, eds. Basics of sleep guide. 2nd ed. Westchester, IL: Sleep Research Society.
  • Brainard GC, Hanifin JP, Greeson JM, Byrne B, Glickman G, Gerner E, Rollag MD [2001]. Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. J Neurosci 21(16):6405-6412.
  • Thapan K, Arendt J, Skene DJ [2001]. An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans. J Physiol 535(Pt 1):261-267.
  • Wesensten NJ, Belenky G, Thome DR, Kautz MA, Balkin TJ [2004]. Modafinil vs. caffeine: effects on fatigue during sleep deprivation. Aviat Space Environ Med 75(6):520-525.
  • Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ, George EC, Gerson B, Hartenbaum N, et al. [2012]. Fatigue risk management in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med 54:231-258.
  • Goel N, Rao H, Durmer JS, Dinges DF [2009]. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 29:320-339.
  • Moller L, Kayumov E, Bulmash J, Nhan C [2006]. Shapiro Simulator performance, microsleep episodes, and subjective sleepiness: normative data using convergent methodologies to assess driver drowsiness. J Psychosom Res 61(3):335-342.
  • Venkatraman V, Chuah YML, Huettel SA, Chee MWL [2007]. Sleep deprivation elevates expectation of gains and attenuates response to losses following risky decisions. Sleep 30(5):603-609.
  • Durmer JS, Dinges DF [2005]. Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Semin Neurol 25:117-129.
  • Pilcher JJ, McClelland LE, Moore DD, Haarmann H, Baron J, Wallsten TS, McCubbin JA [2007]. Language performance under sustained work and sleep deprivation conditions. Aviation Space Environ Med 78(5 Suppl):B25-B38.
  • Pisarski A, Lawrence SA, Bohle P, Brook C [2008]. Organizational influences on the work life conflict and health of shift workers. Appl Ergon 39:580-588.
  • Eriksen W, Bjorvatn B, Bruusgaard D, Knardahl S [2008]. Work factors as predictors of poor sleep in nurses’ aides. Intl Arch Occup Environ Health 81(3):301-310.
  • Geiger-Brown J, Trinkoff AM, Nielsen K, Lirtmunlikaporn S, Brady B, Vasquez EI [2004]. Nurses’ perception of their work environment, health, and well-being: a qualitative perspective. AAOHNJ 52(1):16-22.
  • McDonald R, Kahn K [2007]. Respectful relationships: the heart of better jobs, better care. FutureAge 6(2): 12-15.
  • Shirey MR [2004]. Social support in the workplace: nurse leader implications. Nurs Econ 22(6):313-319.
  • Way M, MacNeil M [2006]. Organizational characteristics and their effect on health. Nurs Econ 24(2):67-76.
  • Caruso CC, Waters TR [2008]. A review of work schedule issues and musculoskeletal disorders with an emphasis on the healthcare sector. Ind Health 46:523-534.
  • Cajochen C [2007]. Alerting effects of light. Sleep Med Rev 11(6):453-464.
  • Smith A [2002]. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol 40(9):1243-1255.
  • Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Balkin TJ [2012]. Gambling when sleep deprived: don’t bet on stimulants. Chronobiol Int 29:43-54.
  • Morgenthaler TI, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Aurora RN, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Chesson AL Jr, Kapur V, Maganti R, Owens J, Pancer J, Swick TJ, Zak R, Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine [2007]. Practice parameters for the clinical evaluation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep 30(11):1445-1459.
  • Sack RL, Auckley D, Auger RR, Carskadon MA, Wright KP Jr, Vitiello MV, Zhdanova IV, American Academy of Sleep Medicine [2007]. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Part I: basic principles, shift work and jet lag disorders. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review. Sleep 30(11):1460-1483.
  • Takahashi M [2003]. The role of prescribed napping in sleep medicine. Sleep Med Rev 7:227-235.
  • Driskell JE, Mullen B [2005]. The efficacy of naps as a fatigue countermeasure: a meta-analytic integration. Hum Factors 47:360-377.
  • Hofer-Tinguely G, Achermann P, Landolt HP, Regel SJ, Rétey JV, Dürr R, Borbély AA, Gottselig JM [2005]. Sleep inertia: performance changes after sleep, rest and active waking. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 22(3):323-331.
  • Jewett ME, Wyatt JK, Ritz-De CA, Khalsa SB, Dijk DJ, Czeisler CA [1999]. Time course of sleep inertia dissipation in human performance and alertness. J Sleep Res 8(1):1-8.
  • Wertz AT, Ronda JM, Czeisler CA, Wright KP Jr [2006]. Effects of sleep inertia on cognition. JAMA 295(2):163-164.
  • Tassi P, Muzet A [2000]. Sleep inertia. Sleep Med Rev 4(4):341-353.
  • Kubo T, Takahashi M, Takeyama H, Matsumoto S, Ebara T, Murata K, Tachi N, Itani T [2010]. How do the timing and length of a night-shift nap affect sleep inertia? Chronobiol Int 27(5):1031-1044.
  • Newman RA, Kamimori GH, Wesensten NJ, Picchioni D, Balkin TJ [2013]. Caffeine gum minimizes sleep inertia. Percept Mot Skills 116(1):280-293.
  • Lowden A, Holmbäck U, Akerstedt T, Forslund J, Lennernäs M, Forslund A [2004]. Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet. Biol Psychol 65(3):251-263.
  • Anderson C, Horne JA [2006]. A high sugar content, low caffeine drink does not alleviate sleepiness but may worsen it. Hum Psychopharmacol 21(5):299-303.
  • Burdakov D, Jensen LT, Alexopoulos H, Williams RH, Fearon IM, O’Kelly I, Gerasimenko O, Fugger L, Verkhratsky A [2006]. Tandem-pore K+ channels mediate inhibition of orexin neurons by glucose. Neuron 50(5):711-722.

Subject Matter Expert: Long Work Hours and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues

Claire C. Caruso, PhD, RN, FAAN, Research Health Scientist, Division of Applied Research and Technology, NIOSH

Subject Matter Experts: Emergency Response

Renée Funk, DVM, MPH&TM, MBA, DACVPM, Deputy Associate Director, Emergency Preparedness and Response Office, NIOSH

Corey R. Butler, MS, Occupational Safety and Health Specialists, NIOSH Western States Office, NIOSH

Yvonne Boudreau, MD, MSPH, Deputy Director/Associate Director for Science, NIOSH Western States Office, NIOSH

Kimberly A. Brinker, MSN, MPH, Nurse Epidemiologist, Emergency Preparedness and Response Office, NIOSH

CAPT Mark M. Methner, PhD, CIH, Senior Industrial Hygienist, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, NIOSH

Health Communications Specialist

Elizabeth J. Dalsey, MA, Office of the Director, NIOSH

Subject Matter Expert: Work Organization

Naomi Swanson, PhD, Branch Chief OSHFB, Division of Applied Research and Technology, NIOSH

Web Development: Dwight M. Werren, IT Specialist, NIOSH

Web Editor: Margaret Bertsch, NIOSH

Editor: Seleen S. Collins, NIOSH

Graphic Design: Brenda Jones, NIOSH; Vanessa Williams, NIOSH

Art Work: Gino Fazio, NIOSH

Sources of title page photos: upper photos and lower right photo by NIOSH; lower left photo by ©Thinkstock

The content of this training program was taken from NIOSH [2015]. NIOSH training for nurses on shift work and long work hours. By Caruso CC, Geiger-Brown J, Takahashi M, Trinkoff A, Nakata A. Cincinnati, OH: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2015-115 (Revised 10/2019). https://doi.org/10.26616/NIOSHPUB2015115revised102019external icon

Page 48 of 48

Page last reviewed: April 1, 2020