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Appendix A. BNI Criteria

Both research and service/support are grounded in BNI and can be defined by the same general BNI criteria categories. The definitions under each category are different and have been modified to reflect the unique nature of research and service/support.

BNI Criteria for Research and Service Activities in NIOSH

BURDEN

Burden describes the magnitude, or potential magnitude, of the problem to be addressed. The most pressing occupational safety and health needs are determined by the evidence of the health and exposure burden on individuals, employers and society. Burden includes evidence of the economic burden, or potential burden, on individuals, employers and society. Burden may also include assessment of the potential burden from emerging issues or understudied hazards or risks.

RESEARCH

B.1. Exposure/Hazard

Burden can be defined by risks from exposure to hazards. The extent of exposure can be viewed in terms of the number of workers exposed, the magnitude of the exposure, or both. For emerging issues the burden is anticipatory and can be described by increasing trends that are described as potential burden using the same traditional burden parameters.

B.2. Injury/Illness

Burden can defined by the occurrence of injuries, illnesses, and deaths due to work-related factors that would tell us how many fatalities or illnesses have occurred. Injury and illness criteria also describe the incidence or prevalence of the injury or illness, and if there are there disparities among worker populations.

B.3. Disability/Severity

Burden can be defined by the degree or severity of disability that results from the injury or illness being addressed. Disability criteria tell us how serious the health outcome is and if there is evidence of disability, years of life lost or disabled, reduction in quality of life, or days away from work.

B.4. Cost

Burden can be defined as the economic impact of the injury or illness and the effect on the worker, employer and society. Cost criteria tell us that the estimated cost of the injury or illness is, such as medical expenses, as well as the productivity losses, lost wages, or disability payments.

SERVICE

B.1. Exposure/Hazard

Burden can be defined by risks from exposure to hazards. The extent of exposure can be viewed in terms of the number of workers exposed, the magnitude of the exposure, or both. For emerging issues the burden is anticipatory and can be described by increasing trends that are described as potential burden using the same traditional burden parameters.

B.2. Injury/Illness

Burden can defined by the occurrence of injuries, illnesses, and deaths due to work-related factors that would tell us how many fatalities or illnesses have occurred. Injury and illness criteria also describe the incidence or prevalence of the injury or illness, and if there are there disparities among worker populations.

B.3. Disability/Severity

Burden can be defined by the degree or severity of disability that results from the injury or illness being addressed. Disability criteria tell us how serious the health outcome is and if there is evidence of disability, years of life lost or disabled, reduction in quality of life, or days away from work.

B.4.Cost

Burden can be defined as the economic impact of the injury or illness and the effect on the worker, employer and society. Cost criteria tell us that the estimated cost of the injury or illness is, such as medical expenses, as well as the productivity losses, lost wages, or disability payments.

NEED

The concept of need is a critical factor intrinsic to identifying the most important activities NIOSH should conduct to address burden. NIOSH should not only invest in an important burden area but also focus on the most relevant and impactful issues pertaining to the burden. Need provides the rationale for conducting the proposed research at this point in time and includes assessment of stakeholder need.

RESEARCH

N.1. Evidence of knowledge gap

Knowledge gap is related to what is known about burden and what gaps exist in reducing it. To evaluate the need to conduct proposed research we should establish whether there is evidence that this activity will address a knowledge gap.

N.2. Methodological approach

Assessment of methodological approach includes understanding whether the proposed research method is well defined and appropriate to the proposed aims of the project, and how it compares with other approaches that could be considered to fill the knowledge gap.

N.3. Time fit

Need considers whether this is the best point in time to conduct the proposed research. Evidence of the best time fit includes assessing whether there is a necessary sequence to the proposed line of study that makes a strong case for conducting the research now.

N.4. NIOSH advantage

The NIOSH advantage describes whether NIOSH is the most appropriate organization to conduct the proposed research. This criteria helps us understand whether NIOSH is ideally suited for this activity or whether the proposed work uses NIOSH expertise, facilities or partnerships. Perhaps the proposed work requires neutrality or the NIOSH convening authority. The NIOSH advantage provides evidence of the strengths or unique advantages NIOSH has in comparison with other agencies that could undertake this activity.

N.5. Stakeholder need

Need also provides evidence of an explicit stakeholder need in the broad context of research, policy or practice to conduct the proposed research.

SERVICE

N.1. Evidence service gap

Service gap is related to what is currently being done to address the need or request for service. To evaluate the need to conduct proposed service activity we should establish whether there is evidence that this activity will address a gap.

N.2. Service Approach

Assessment of service approach includes understanding whether the proposed approach or type of response (e.g., interviews, field studies, investigation, referral to other agencies) is well defined and appropriate to address the burden the request for service seeks to address and how this approach compares with other approaches that could be considered to fill the service gap.

N.3. Time fit

Need considers whether this is the best point in time to conduct the proposed service activity. Evidence of the best time fit includes assessing whether there is a necessary sequence to the proposed activity that makes a strong case for conducting the service now.

N.4. NIOSH advantage

The NIOSH advantage describes whether NIOSH is the most appropriate organization to conduct the proposed service activity. This criteria helps us understand whether NIOSH is ideally suited for this activity or whether the proposed service uses NIOSH expertise, facilities or partnerships. Perhaps the proposed work requires neutrality or the NIOSH convening authority. The NIOSH advantage provides evidence of the strengths or unique advantages NIOSH has in comparison with other agencies that could undertake this activity.

N.5. Stakeholder need

Need also provides evidence of an explicit stakeholder need in the broad context of the NIOSH mission to conduct the proposed service activity.

IMPACT

Impact is a measure of the potential reduction in burden that is likely to result from the project based on evident or anticipated end outcomes or well-accepted intermediate outcomes. Potential impact is expressed as potential reduction in burden or increase in effectiveness. The assessment of potential impact is based on the expected result in knowledge, policy, interventions, technologies, or solutions to occupational health problems, project cost and time, and probability of success.

RESEARCH

I1. Likelihood of success

Likelihood of success describes the probability the proposed research is feasible and will likely address the stated need. Impact considers the potential for the proposed research to be used in setting standards, guidance, policy, or recommendations, adopted by manufacturers, trade associations, or others, and whether there is potential for dissemination of research results by external organizations.

I2. Use or dissemination of research results by others

Use of research results by others describes the potential for the proposed research to be used in setting standards, guidance, policy, or recommendations; or adopted by manufacturers, trade associations, or others. The potential for relevant groups to adopt technology, training programs/materials, intervention strategies, or new surveillance methods used in or resulting from the proposed research is also considered, as well as the potential for technology to be transferred into the marketplace, or for partners to assist in tracking progress of research translation efforts.

I3. Follow-on research

Assessment of the potential for follow-on research is a measure of how likely the proposed research is to generate information that leads to future research that builds on the findings from this project.

SERVICE

I1. Likelihood of success

Likelihood of success describes the probability the proposed activity is feasible and will likely address the stated need. Impact considers the potential for the proposed activity to be used in setting standards, guidance, policy, or recommendations, adopted by manufacturers, trade associations, or others, and whether there is potential for dissemination of research results by external organizations.

I2. Use or dissemination of service activity results by others

Use of service activity results by others describes the potential for others to use the results in setting standards, guidance, policy, or recommendations; or adopted by manufacturers, trade associations, or others. The potential for relevant groups to adopt technology, training programs/materials, intervention strategies, or new surveillance methods used in or resulting from the proposed service activity is also considered, as well as the potential for technology to be transferred into the marketplace, or for partners to assist in tracking progress of research translation efforts.

I3. Follow-on service

Assessment of the potential for follow-on service is a measure of how likely the proposed activity is to generate information that leads to future research or service that builds on the results from this project.

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