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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Toluene, p-nitro-

RTECS #

XT3325000

CAS #

99-99-0

Updated

October 2014

Molecular Weight

137.15

Molecular Formula

C7H7NO2

Synonyms

1-Methyl-4-nitrobenzene
4-Methylnitrobenzene
4-Nitrotoluene
4-Nitrotoluol
Benzene, 1-methyl-4-nitro- (9CI)
NCI-C60537
Nitrotoluene, para-
para-Nitrotoluol
p-Methylnitrobenzene
p-Nitrotoluene
p-Nitrotoluene (ACGIH:OSHA)
PNT

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster500 mg/LEMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
DNA Damagetestis/rat0.032 µmol/LEMMUEG 44,179,2004
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis5 mg/discMUREAV 170,11,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)ENMUDM 4,163,1982
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster200 mg/LEMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat100 µg/LEMMUEG 26,147,1995

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 30 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaJTEHD6 36,13,1992
oral/rat 65793 mg/kg (13W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
NTPTR* NIH-93-3346

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 507150 mg/kg/105W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** NIH No. 01-4432
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 438 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91.3 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 109.5 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80850 mg/kg/105W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** NIH No. 01-4432
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91875 mg/kg/105W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
NTIS** NIH No. 01-4432

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 419 mg/m3Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
GTPZAB 22(7),52,1978
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 975 mg/m3Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
GTPZAB 22(7),52,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 940 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
GISAAA 24(9),15,1959
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1231 mg/kgNTIS** PB214-270
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1750 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
GTPZAB 22(7),52,1978
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1960 mg/kgGTPZAB 25(8),50,1981
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >16 gm/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
GISAAA 24(9),15,1959

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 73983 mg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-93-3346
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
DCTODJ 17,317,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16800 mg/kg/4W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 33600 mg/kg/8W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* IMM-8703
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
NTPTR* IMM-8703
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/2W- continuousLiver: Other changesCRNGDP 26,689,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/4W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXCYAC 183,221,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40425 mg/kg/105W- continuousBlood: Leukemia

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** NIHNo.01-4432
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 176400 mg/kg/105W- continuousReproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** NIHNo.01-4432
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 194775 mg/kg/105W- continuousSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent
NTIS** NIHNo.01-4432
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 65793 mg/kg/13W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NTPTR* NIH-93-3346

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 65,409,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 65,409,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 65,409,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 588,88,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 202,36,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3), skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5.5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 3 mg/m4, MAC(short term exposure limit) 9 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 ppm (6 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), KZG-week 4 ppm (22 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-NITROTOLUENE-air10H time-weighted average 2 ppm (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X6955; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 21; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 4354; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 729

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);equivocal evidence:rat
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-23, October 2000
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