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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Toluene, alpha-chloro-

RTECS #

XS8925000

CAS #

100-44-7

Updated

April 2017

Molecular Weight

126.59

Molecular Formula

C7H7Cl

Synonyms

alpha-Chlorotoluene
alpha-Chlortoluol (German)
Benzene, (chloromethyl)-
Benzile (cloruro di) (Italian)
Benzyl chloride
Benzyl chloride (ACGIH:OSHA)
Benzylchlorid (German)
Benzyle (chlorure de) (French)
Chloromethylbenzene
Chlorophenylmethane
Chlorure de benzyle (French)
NCI-C06360
omega-Chlorotoluene
RCRA waste number P028
Tolyl chloride

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/rat120 µmol/LPMRSDJ 4,247,1982
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse393 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA Damagefibroblast/human1 mmol/LMUREAV 145,209,1985
DNA Damageother cell types/human1 mmol/LMUREAV 145,209,1985
DNA repair/Escherichia coli10 mg/LJJIND8 62,873,1979
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis79200 nmol/discMUREAV 58,143,1978
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae400 ppmJJIND8 62,901,1979
micronucleus testembryo/hamster1 µmol/LMUREAV 203,397,1988
micronucleus testlung/hamster313 µmol/L/6H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlung/hamster1250 µmol/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlung/hamster625 µmol/L/48H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
morphological transformembryo/hamster1600 µg/LCRNGDP 1,323,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse8 mg/LEMMUEG 11,91,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium7900 nmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 58,143,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium666 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)ENMUDM 9(Suppl 9),1,1987
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli6300 nmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 58,143,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium28 mg/L/2H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 578,210,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium50 mg/L/2H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 578,210,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 µg/plate/48H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 633,13,2007
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium200 µg/plate/48H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 633,13,2007
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium250 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 633,13,2007
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1000 µg/plate/3H (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 633,13,2007
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium500 µg/plate/48H (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 633,13,2007
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster100 µmol/LJJATDK 3,203,1983
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human50 µmol/LCALEDQ 20,263,1983

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse 250 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)MUREAV 100,345,1982
oral/rat 1 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JTEHD6 17,51,1986
oral/rat 11 µg/kg (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathGISAAA 44(3),11,1979
oral/rat 1000 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
VCVGK* -,40,1994
subcutaneous/mouse 2500 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)MUREAV 100,345,1982

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 31 gm/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Vascular: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
JJIND8 76,1231,1986
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9200 mg/kg/50W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
GANNA2 72,655,1981
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/53W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZEKBAI 74,241,1970
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
FCTXAV 6,576,1968

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 400 ppm/8HEye: Corneal damage

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
NTIS** OTS0572390
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/8HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 2000 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 160 mg/m3Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3/10SEye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3Olfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,40,1984
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 390 mg/m3GTPZAB 30(3),6,1986
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 390 mg/m3/2HVCVGK* -,39,1984
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 80 ppm/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionIMEMDT 11,217,1976
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.39 gm/m3TPKVAL 9,27,1967
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.74 gm/m3TPKVAL 9,27,1967
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 150 ppm/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionIMEMDT 11,217,1976
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 740 mg/m3/2HVCVGK* -,39,1984
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgLiver: Other changesVCVGK* -,39,1984
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kgGISAAA 40(1),92,1975
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kg85GMAT -,25,1982
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1231 mg/kgNTIS** PB214-270
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
AECTCV 18,670,1989
skin/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 10 mL/kgNTIS** OTS0572390
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgZEKBAI 74,241,1970
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 780 mg/kgGISAAA 44(3),11,1979
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 625 mg/kgGISAAA 44(3),11,1979

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 480 mg/m3/6D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,40,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 46 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsJJATDK 15,207,1995
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 480 mg/m3/6D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVCVGK* -,40,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7800 mg/kg/26W- intermittentLiver: Other changesJJIND8 76,1231,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4836 mg/kg/26W- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JJIND8 76,1231,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/8D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 10,837,1982

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 1 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 29,49,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,453,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 71,453,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 29,49,1982
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 626,135,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,10,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,17,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,24,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5.2 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.2 mg/m3;KZW 0.8 mg/m3, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5.3 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2.6 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 1.5 ppm (7.9 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), carc, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2A carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5.2 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5.2 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDtime-weighted average 3 mg/m3, CEILING 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (11 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.2 mg/m3, carc 2, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDcarc 1, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2.6 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 1.5 ppm (7.9 mg/m3), carc, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO BENZYL CHLORIDE-airceiling concentration 1 ppm/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 11600; Number of Industries 29; Total Number of Facilities 1877; Number of Occupations 25; Total Number of Employees Exposed 41075; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 8440
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 11600; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 172; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 30504

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; E coli polA with S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: SHE-clonal assay; B subtilis rec assay
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9001;8EHQ-0892-8910
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);clear evidence:mouseJJIND8 76,1231,1986
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (feed);inadequate:ratJJIND8 76,1231,1986
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
On EPA IRIS database
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