1,2-Propanediol

RTECS #
TY2000000
CAS #
57-55-6
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
March 2019
Molecular Weight
76.11
Molecular Formula
C3H8O2
Synonyms
1,2-Dihydroxypropane
1,2-Propylene glycol
1,2-Propylenglykol (German)
alpha-Propyleneglycol
Dowfrost
Methylethylene glycol
Monopropylene glycol
PG 12
Propane-1,2-diol
Propylene glycol
Propylene Glycol USP
Sirlene
Solar Winter BAN
Solargard P
Ucar 35

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg mildFCTOD7 20,573,1982
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,206,1986
skin /child 30%/96H-continuous moderateJAADDB 42,355,2000
skin /human 500 mg/7D mildJIDEAE 55,190,1970
skin /human 104 mg/3D- intermittent moderate85DKA8 -,127,1977
skin /human 20%CODEDG 57,58,2007
skin /man 10%/2DJIDEAE 19,423,1952
skin /woman 30%/96H open irritation test mildJAADDB 42,355,2000

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/mouse8000 mg/kgAPMSBI 274,304,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster32 gm/LFCTOD7 22,623,1984
DNA inhibitionsubcutaneous/mouse8000 mg/kgAPMSBI 274,304,1981

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse 100 mg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)KAIZAN 37,239,1962
intraperitoneal/mouse 100 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)KAIZAN 37,239,1962

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (5 percent kill): >25000 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 684 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration (30 percent kill): >200 mg/L/45HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,901,2015
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >200 mg/L/45HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 29,901,2015
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): >10000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 10 mmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 304.4 mg/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,314,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (30 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (30 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/jdaInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 50416 mg/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 212,198,2012
In Vitro/jzxInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 25.3 pph/60MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,150,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >10000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 17,717,2003
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.07 gm/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTIVIEQ 3,329,1989
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >44.9 gm/m3/4HTXCYAC 287,76,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 44.9 gm/m3/4HBlood: HemorrhageTXCYAC 287,76,2011
intramuscular/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 6300 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JPETAB 44,109,1932
intramuscular/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 6300 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
intramuscular/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
intramuscular/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 gm/kgIAEC** 17JUN1974
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9718 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Blood: Changes in spleen
FEPRA7 6,342,1947
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 11400 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19500 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6660 mg/kgKRKRDT 9,36,1981
intravenous/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 27 gm/kgVascular: Other changesJPETAB 60,312,1937
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 26000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 26 gm/kgNTIS** PB280-477
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6630 mg/kgARZNAD 26,1581,1976
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 4200 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6500 mg/kgNTIS** PB280-477
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6800 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6423 mg/kgARZNAD 26,1581,1976
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 79 gm/kg/56W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JOPDAB 93,515,1978
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22 gm/kgJIHTAB 21,173,1939
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 19000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 18350 mg/kgJIHTAB 23,259,1941
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22 gm/kgJPETAB 65,89,1939
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20300 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2080 mg/kgEESADV 6,149,1982
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 20000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 18500 mg/kgFAONAU 53A,491,1974
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 gm/kgTXAPA9 45,362,1978
parenteral/infant lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/3D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changesPEDIAU 72,353,1983
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20800 mg/kgNPIRI* 1,101,1974
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20800 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 15500 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,150,1984
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 15500 mg/kgNTIS** PB280-477
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17370 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
KRKRDT 8,46,1981
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17400 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 28000 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,149,1984
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22500 mg/kgIAEC** 17JUN1974
Tank with water/Zebrafish toxic concentration: 6.25 mL/L/66HBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NRTXDN 65,111,2018

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 5 gm/m3/36M/28D- intermittentBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) countTXCYAC 287,76,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 30 gm/m3/2H/28D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTXCYAC 287,76,2011
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2180 mg/m3/6H/90D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FCTOD7 27,573,1989
intravenous/woman lowest published toxic dose: 5167 mg/kg/13D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosisAPHRER 39,1732,2005
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 3650 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia
VCVGK* -,150,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84 mL/kg/30D- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,150,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 88269 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEndocrine: Hyperglycemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TSUMEZ 14,13,1995
skin/human lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/7D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationVCVGK* -,150,1994
skin/human lowest published toxic dose: 4.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationVCVGK* -,150,1994
skin/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.03 mL/kg/22D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)CODEDG 8,185,1982
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1284800 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentSkin and Appendages: TumorsVCVGK* -,150,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,259,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,623,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,1287,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 58,252,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 84,133,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRTOPDW 61,119,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,276,1998
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (particulates), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 150 ppm (474 mg/m3) (total), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (particulates only), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 150 ppm (474 mg/m3) (vapour and particulates), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 7 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (particulate), OCT2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 150 ppm (474 mg/m3) (total vapor and psrticulate), OCT2007

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 63525; Number of Industries 347; Total Number of Facilities 92966; Number of Occupations 244; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2238429; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 936584
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 63525; Number of Industries 323; Total Number of Facilities 83144; Number of Occupations 224; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1494465

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101108/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: SHE-clonal assay
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Glycols, 5523
On EPA IRIS database
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018