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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Phenanthridinium, 3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenyl-, bromide






July 2016

Molecular Weight


Molecular Formula



2,7-Diamino-10-ethyl-9-phenylphenanthridinium bromide
2,7-Diamino-9-phenyl-10-ethylphenanthridinium bromide
2,7-Diamino-9-phenylphenanthridine ethobromide
3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide
Ethidium bromide
Homidium bromide
RD 1572

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/non-mammalian species10 mg/LNATUAS 222,193,1969
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/non-mammalian species10 mmol/LAAMMAU 62,365,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/mouse1 mg/LMUREAV 33,417,1975
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/mouse5 mg/LVAAZA2 27,79,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/mouse10 mg/LCHROAU 47,157,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mg/LCHROAU 47,157,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster10 mg/LCHROAU 47,157,1974
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster41 mg/LGMCRDC 27,95,1981
DNA adductleukocyte/wild bird37500 nmol/LBBRCA9 46,1399,1972
DNA adductliver/rat200 µmol/LECREAL 100,223,1976
DNA adductfibroblast/human2 µmol/LCBINA8 11,101,1975
DNA adduct/Saccharomyes cerevisiae50 µmol/LJBCHA3 249,6617,1974
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli15 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damageleukocyte/human5 mg/LNATUAS 263,679,1976
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms100 µg/LECREAL 55,248,1969
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms2 mg/LECREAL 55,248,1969
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms600 mg/LJMOBAK 33,141,1968
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms300 mg/LJMOBAK 77,479,1973
DNA Damage/non-mammalian species1 moleBBACAQ 561,77,1979
DNA Damageother cell types/rat40 mg/LCBINA8 77,25,1991
DNA DamageAscites tumor/mouse117 µmol/LBBACAQ 374,96,1974
DNA Damagemammary gland/mouse100 nmol/LJOBIAO 84,145,1978
DNA Damageleukocyte/domestic bird1 mmol/LNNBYA7 243,20,1973
DNA Damageliver/domestic bird1 mmol/LNNBYA7 243,20,1973
DNA Damageother cell types/domestic bird1 mmol/LNNBYA7 243,20,1973
DNA Damagelung/hamster15.7 µmol/L/3H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 503,21,2002
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms25 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 572,84,2005
DNA Damagemammary gland/human0.44 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster10 mg/L/30M-continuousECREAL 99,7,1976
DNA Damageother cell types/cattle25 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 678,20,2009
DNA Damageleukocyte/human5 µmol/L/16HMUREAV 789-790,28,2015
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibitionother cell types/mouse500 µmol/LEXPEAM 40,869,1984
DNA inhibitionleukocyte/mouse500 µmol/LBCPCA6 20,2921,1971
DNA inhibitionother cell types/non-mammalian species50 mg/LNATUAS 222,193,1969
DNA inhibitionliver/rat500 nmol/LMUREAV 113,145,1983
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/mouse100 µmol/LBCPCA6 21,1977,1972
DNA inhibition/Other microorganisms2 mg/LMGGEAE 150,301,1977
DNA inhibition/Other microorganisms100 µg/LNNBYA7 232,143,1971
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human40 µmol/LMUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibition/Euglena gracilis1 mg/LJNCSAI 13,567,1973
DNA inhibition/Other microorganisms2500 µg/LCYTBAI 26,75,1979
DNA repair/Escherichia coli250 µg/discMUREAV 41,61,1976
DNA repair/Salmonella typhimurium1 pphAGACBH 4,286,1974
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis6 µg/discMUREAV 97,1,1982
Dominant Lethal Testoral/Drosophila melanogaster30 µmol/LMUREAV 97,203,1982
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1 pphAGACBH 4,286,1974
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species63400 nmol/LMUTAEX 4,17,1989
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster75 µmol/LCRNGDP 15,2303,1994
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster45 mg/LMUREAV 94,449,1982
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae6.25 mg/L/16HMUTAEX 20,105,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe2 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)MGGEAE 144,75,1976
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae5 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)CPBTAL 34,1735,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms50 µg/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 74,113,1980
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms10 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)JOBAAY 126,959,1976
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms5 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)JDREAF 55,266,1976
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms25 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)CUMIDD 8,201,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli10 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)CHDDAT 269,1708,1969
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium200 ng/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 127,31,1984
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium100 ng/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 439,37,1999
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium50 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systems/Other microorganisms50 mg/LIJBBBQ 19,285,1982
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli500 µmol/LBCPCA6 20,2921,1971
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/mouse100 µmol/LBCPCA6 21,1977,1972
other mutation test systemsleukocyte/mouse500 µmol/LBCPCA6 20,2921,1971
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli10 µg/plateCNREA8 43,2819,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster3 mmol/LMUREAV 97,203,1982
sister chromatid exchangeliver/rat10 mg/LCBTOE2 2,379,1986
sister chromatid exchangeintravenous/mouse80 mg/kgJJMCAQ 38,207,1985
sister chromatid exchangeparenteral/chicken847 µg/kg47JMAE -,137,1982
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster10 mg/LCBTOE2 2,379,1986
specific locus testovary/hamster10 mg/L/24HMUREAV 602,14,2006
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster3 mmol/LMUREAV 138,169,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat2500 nmol/LCRNGDP 10,393,1989

Acute Toxicity Data and References

implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheathBJMRDK 35,99,2002
In Vitro/Human, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 ng/mL/6WBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial functionTXAPA9 261,42,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentCNREA8 34,2699,1974
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kgATMPA2 46,285,1952



NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code A1168; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 7; Number of Occupations 3; Total Number of Employees Exposed 21
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code A1168; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 17; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 34

Status in Federal Agencies

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Cytogenetics-male germ cell
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae gene conversion; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro mammalian nonhuman micronucleus
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; selected, October 2000