Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Ether, bis(2-chloroethyl)

RTECS #

KN0875000

CAS #

111-44-4

Updated

April 2017

Molecular Weight

143.02

Molecular Formula

C4H8Cl2O

Synonyms

1,1'-Oxybis(2-chloro)ethane
1-Chloro-2-(beta-chloroethoxy)ethane
2,2'-Dichloorethylether (Dutch)
2,2'-Dichlor-diaethylaether (German)
2,2'-Dichlorethyl ether
2,2'-Dichloroethyl ether
2,2'-Dicloroetiletere (Italian)
2-Chloro-1-(2-chloroethoxy)ethane
2-Chloro-1-(2-chloroethoxy)ethane, fume
beta,beta-Dichlorodiethyl ether
beta,beta'-Dichloroethyl ether
Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
Bis(beta-chloroethyl) ether
Chlorex
Chloroethyl ether
Clorex
DCEE
Di(2-chloroethyl) ether
Di(beta-chloroethyl)ether
Dichloroether
Dichloroethyl ether
Dichloroethyl ether (ACGIH:OSHA)
Dichloroethyl oxide
Dwuchlorodwuetylowy eter (Polish)
ENT 4,504
Ethane, 1,1'-oxybis(2-chloro-
Ether dichlore (French)
Oxyde de chlorethyle (French)
RCRA waste number U025
sym-Dichloroethyl ether

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
skin /rabbit 10 mg/24H open irritation testJIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin /rabbit 500 mg open irritation test mildUCDS** 12/29/1971

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
gene conversion and mitotic recombinationinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster4000 ppmCRNGDP 17,1083,1996
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1457 mg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)DHEFDK FDA-78-1046,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)ENMUDM 8(Suppl 7),1,1986
specific locus testparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster10500 ppmEMMUEG 23,51,1994

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 33 gm/kg/79W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 42,1101,1969
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/60W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 48,1431,1972

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 5500 mg/m3/2HCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 3000 mg/m3/5HCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 600 mg/m3/10HCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/guinea pig lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 500 ppm/1H85JCAE -,541,1986
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 5500 mg/m3Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 3000 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 500 mg/m3/7HBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 650 mg/m3/2H85GMAT -,45,1982
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 5500 mg/m3/2HCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 330 mg/m3Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 330 mg/m3/4H85GMAT -,45,1982
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112 mg/kgGISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112 mg/kgVCVGK* -,282,1994
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 209 mg/kgEye: Ptosis

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
ATDAEI 1,163,1992
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 126 mg/kg38MKAJ 2A,2518,1981
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kgJIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgJIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kg38MKAJ 2A,2518,1981

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/4H/137D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3/45M/14D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/4H/137D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
VCVGK* -,282,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1170 mg/kg/45D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,283,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 5 ppm;short term exposure limit 10 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 9,117,1975
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 71,1265,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 9,117,1975
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,1265,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 71,1265,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 75,8575,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin)DTLWS* 3,16,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (58 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);KZW 25 ppm (150 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 10 ppm (59 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (59 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 10 ppm (59 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 15 ppm (88 mg/m3), skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 10 ppm (58 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 10 ppm (58 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 60 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENGroup B Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), carc 3, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 15 ppm (90 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 30 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 15 ppm (90 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 15 ppm (90 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DICHLOROETHYLETHER-airCarcinogen time-weighted average 5 ppm (Sk);short term exposure limit 10 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84164; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 21; Number of Occupations 2; Total Number of Employees Exposed 41

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/90/168683/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Dichloroethyl ether, 1004
On EPA IRIS database
TOP