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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzene, chloro-

RTECS #

CZ0175000

CAS #

108-90-7

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

112.56

Molecular Formula

C6H5Cl

Synonyms

Benzene chloride
Chloorbenzeen (Dutch)
Chlorbenzene
Chlorbenzol
Chlorobenzen (Polish)
Chlorobenzene
Chlorobenzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
Chlorobenzenu (Czech)
Clorobenzene (Italian)
MCB
Monochloorbenzeen (Dutch)
Monochlorbenzene
Monochlorbenzol (German)
Monochlorobenzene
Monochlorobenzene (OSHA)
Monoclorobenzene (Italian)
NCI-C54886
Phenyl chloride
Tetrosin SP

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse1 gm/kgEMMUEG 25,302,1995
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat500 µg/L/275D- intermittentVCVGK* -,20,1994
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1000 ppmNTIS** PB84-138973
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse225 mg/kg/24HMUTAEX 2,111,1987
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse225 mg/kgHPV173 -,-,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse100 mg/LEMMUEG 12,85,1988
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse70 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 12,85,1988
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster300 mg/LSCIEAS 236,933,1987

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 75 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTXAPA9 76,365,1984
inhalation/rat 210 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemTXAPA9 76,365,1984
inhalation/rabbit 590 ppm/6H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TXAPA9 76,365,1984
inhalation/rabbit 10 ppm/6H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTXAPA9 76,365,1984
inhalation/rat 2760 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
HPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rabbit 210 ppm (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleHPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rat 150 ppm (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Other effects on female
HPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rat 590 ppm (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
HPV173 -,-,2002

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 61800 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-261,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 61800 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-144714/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 61800 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
HPV173 -,-,2002

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (5 percent kill): 1970 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 4000 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell counting

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 597.2 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 552 mg/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1233,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 245,281,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 225.1 mg/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,314,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXAPA9 283,147,2015
In Vitro/mraInhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 2031.6 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 216,65,2013
In Vitro/mraInhibitor Concentration Low: 20.316 mg/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOLED5 216,65,2013
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 6.77 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10 gm/m3GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 15 gm/m3GISAAA 20(8),19,1955
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 700 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4300 ppm/2HENTOX* -,556,2005
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1886 ppm/6HHPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2965 ppm/6HHPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 39700 mg/m3/3.75HHPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2965 ppmNTIS** OTS0521601
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 4100 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
RMSRA6 16,449,1896
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 515 mg/kgPHMCAA 10,172,1968
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1655 mg/kgFAATDF 5,105,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 111,69,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightTXAPA9 111,69,1991
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
VCVGK* -,19,1984
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2250 mg/kg85GMAT -,34,1982
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2300 mg/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2300 mg/kgENTOX* -,556,2005
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2250 mg/kg38MKAJ 2B,3603,1981
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1110 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
SRTCAC 36(1-4),10,1989
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1540 mg/kgHPV173 -,-,2002
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
HPV173 -,-,2002
skin/guinea pig Lethal dose: >11 gm/kg85INA8 6,271,1991
skin/rabbit Lethal dose: >2200 mg/kgNTIS** AD-A180-198
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >7940 mg/kgHPV173 -,-,2002
unreported route/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2300 mg/kgGISAAA 51(5),61,1986
unreported route/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2830 mg/kgLiver: Other changesVCVGK* -,19,1984
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.026 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
VCVGK* -,19,1984
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 4000 mg/kgLiver: Other changesVCVGK* -,19,1984
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2950 mg/kgLiver: Other changesVCVGK* -,19,1984

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 1590 mg/m3/24W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
HPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/7H/24W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NTIS** OTS0555046
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 mg/m3/3W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,19,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/213D- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasiaVCVGK* -,20,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/60D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
GISAAA 30(3),8,1965
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/7H/24W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NTIS** OTS0555046
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 17712 mg/kg/93D- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 19,393,1971
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 3542.5 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV173 -,-,2002
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 17712.5 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV173 -,-,2002
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 441 mg/kg/63W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
GISAAA 20(7),7,1955
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16250 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 15,745,1985
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 22750 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,20,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16250 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV173 -,-,2002
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 441 mg/kg/63W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
GISAAA 20(7),7,1955
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 15,745,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32500 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 15,745,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 27300 µg/kg/39W- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Eosinophilia

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
GISAAA 33(10),15,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22750 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,20,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1170 mg/kg/31W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
VCVGK* -,20,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16250 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV173 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32500 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV173 -,-,2002
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,19,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 138,1,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,556,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,49,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 1 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (46 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 ppm (23 mg/m3);KZW 15 ppm (70 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (23 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (70 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 5 ppm (23 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 47 mg/m3 (10 ppm);short term exposure limit 94 mg/m3 (20 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (23 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (70 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 ppm (47 mg/m3), VLE 20 ppm (94 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 10 ppm (47 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 47 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 94 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (23 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (70 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 10 ppm (46 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (46 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (115 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (46 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 20 ppm (92 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 150 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 100 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 5 ppm (23 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 15 ppm (70 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 10 ppm (46 mg/m3), KZG-week 20 ppm (92 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 46 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4.7 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 3 ppm (14 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (350 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 18190; Number of Industries 24; Total Number of Facilities 912; Number of Occupations 35; Total Number of Employees Exposed 18050; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 3881
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 18190; Number of Industries 36; Total Number of Facilities 1965; Number of Occupations 46; Total Number of Employees Exposed 46734

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180505/AS)
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);no evidence:mouse
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);some evidence:rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-261,1985
On EPA IRIS database
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