Piperazine, 1-acetyl-4-(4-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methoxy)phenyl)-, cis-

RTECS #
TK7912300
CAS #
65277-42-1
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
March 2019
Molecular Weight
531.48
Molecular Formula
C26H28Cl2N4O4
Synonyms
Fungarest
Fungoral
Keto
Ketoconazol
Ketoconazole
Ketoderm
Ketoisdin
KW-1414
Nizoral
Orifungal M
Panfungol
R 41400

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA Damageliver/human1 mmol/l/48HMUREAV 696,21,2010
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human10 mg/LAMACCQ 24,478,1983
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human1 µmol/LTUMOAB 77,385,1991

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/man 1029 mg/kg (60D male)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Endocrine: Androgenic
ACENA7 110,276,1985
oral/rat 6480 mg/kg (9W male/2W pre-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)
KSRNAM 18,1433,1984
oral/rat 600 mg/kg (3D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
CCPTAY 41,411,1990
oral/rat 3240 mg/kg (9W male/2W pre-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
KSRNAM 18,1433,1984
oral/rat 880 mg/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
KSRNAM 18,1433,1984
oral/rat 1040 mg/kg (17-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
KSRNAM 18,1433,1984
oral/rat 300 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Other effects on maleJOAND3 13,191,1992
oral/mouse 300 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JOAND3 13,191,1992
oral/rat 520 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
KSRNAM 18,1433,1984
oral/rat 80 mg/kg (1-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)HBPTO* 1,736,2001
oral/rat 175 mg/kg (28D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glandsARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat 2800 mg/kg (28D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
ARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat 175 mg/kg (28D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat 1400 mg/kg (28D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubesARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat 2800 mg/kg (28D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders
ARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat 1760 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ARTODN 83,863,2009

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, colon tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysJOETD7 141,709,2012
In Vitro/Human, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.65 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TXAPA9 268,309,2013
In Vitro/Human, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.15 µmol/L/24HEndocrine: Other changesTXCYAC 275,21,2010
In Vitro/Human, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.26 µmol/L/72HTIVIEQ 26,343,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.9 µmol/L/120MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,560,2013
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 131 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,1789,2013
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 53 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1789,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.05 mg/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysPYTOEY 19,348,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 47.45 µmol/L/5DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TXAPA9 275,44,2014
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 147 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 30,429,2015
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 80 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 236,16,2015
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 320 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TOLED5 236,16,2015
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 249,148,2010
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,812,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 4 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 25,1414,2011
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 34.9 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 34,161,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.09 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TIVIEQ 34,161,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 9.04 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 34,161,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 13.3 µmol/L/1HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): GlycolyticTIVIEQ 34,161,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 31.6 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,511,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 217.8 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,582,2015
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 44.15 µmol/L/5DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TXAPA9 275,44,2014
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >100 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 30,429,2015
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1.0 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXAPA9 264,167,2012
In Vitro/mtbInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/5DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 29,320,2015
In Vitro/mtbInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 10.63 µmol/L/10DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTIVIEQ 29,320,2015
In Vitro/Pig, spermatozoa Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.021 mmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 29,582,2015
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 60 µmol/L/48HReproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TXAPA9 322,15,2017
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 30 mg/L/48HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TIVIEQ 1,11,1987
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mg/L/48HReproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
TIVIEQ 1,11,1987
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine cell (tissues) Inhibitor Concentration Low: 6000 nmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TXAPA9 250,263,2011
In Vitro/Rat, intestinal Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 8.22 µmol/L/2.5HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 29,1070,2015
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1.15 mg/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysPYTOEY 19,348,2012
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >100 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,174,2012
In Vitro/Rat, testis Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 µmol/LEndocrine: Other changesJOETD7 149,201,2013
intraduodenal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BJPCBM 138,1459,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2937 mg/kgIYKEDH 18,474,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1474 mg/kgIYKEDH 18,474,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 208,367,2005
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 23300 µg/kgMDACAP 17,373,1981
intravenous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 23300 µg/kgMDACAP 17,373,1981
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 32 mg/kgAMACCQ 33,895,1989
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 86 mg/kgDRUGAY 23,1,1982
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
BMJOAE 293,993,1986
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 178 mg/kgMDACAP 17,373,1981
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 178 mg/kgMDACAP 17,373,1981
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 8.6 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
AIMDAP 145,1429,1985
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Change in LH
AIMDAP 142,2137,1982
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 2.857 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Anaphylaxis (multiple organ involvement)BMJOAE 287,,1983
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 5.7 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Other changes
ACENA7 105,275,1984
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 49 mg/kg/17D- intermittentLiver: Other changesGASTAB 86,503,1984
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 45 mg/kg/17D- intermittentBehavioral: Coma

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
GUTTAK 26,636,1986
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 618 mg/kgMDACAP 17,373,1981
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesACPSI* 24,778,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTXCYAC 246,91,2008
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 166 mg/kgMDACAP 17,373,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
ACENA7 111,246,1986
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 412 mg/kg/15W- intermittentBehavioral: Coma

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
GUTTAK 26,636,1986
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 264 mg/kg/66D- intermittentLiver: Other changesGASTAB 86,503,1984
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kgLiver: Other changesGASTAB 86,503,1984
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): >4 gm/kgIYKEDH 18,474,1987
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2400 mg/kgIYKEDH 18,474,1987
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 60,168,2001

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agent

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
MOCAE8 34,199,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOSCF2 46,45,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2250 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Androgenic

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOSCF2 46,45,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
ETPAEK 59,377,2007
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/7D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,12,2003
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
KSRNAM 18,1426,1984
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 154.3 mg/kg/9D- intermittentEndocrine: Androgenic

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
AIMDAP 145,1429,1985
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 1539 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: GynecomastiaAIMDAP 145,1429,1985
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/3W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NEROEW 28,379,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1749 ng/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 94,81,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3125 ng/kg/21D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTXCYAC 94,81,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24000 mg/kg/60D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)HBPTO* 1,736,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/8D- continuousEndocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
HBPTO* 1,736,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/20D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOSCF2 60,285,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 720 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOSCF2 60,285,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/3D- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)HBPTO* 1,736,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Other effects on maleTOXID9 72,131,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in gonadotropinsTOSCF2 69,79,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1125 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
TOSCF2 69,79,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TOSCF2 69,79,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1135 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 246,91,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: EstrogenicARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
ARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/28D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1400 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
ARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/28D- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Endocrine: Estrogenic

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
ARTODN 80,797,2006
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/2D- intermittentVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Immunological Including Allergic: Anaphylaxis (multiple organ involvement)
APHRER 39,547,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/14D- intermittentEndocrine: AndrogenicRTOPDW 26,60,1997
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/14D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
RTOPDW 26,60,1997
unreported route/man lowest published toxic dose: 77100 mg/kg/27D- intermittentBehavioral: Headache

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
DDSCDJ 33,240,1988
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 144 mg/kg/12D- continuousReproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Endocrine: Other changes
HBPTO* 1,736,2001

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 43,441,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,279,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 488,151,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 23,355,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,161,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJHEPT* 3,399,1986
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,384,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSBUL* 35,66,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSBUL* 36,91,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,813,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLLID* 11,549,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLLID* 13,277,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDERCL* 27,289,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,134,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBJCAAI 100,671,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,16,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 198,106,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 202,36,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSFDRA* 38,379,2016

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X6059; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 30; Number of Occupations 3; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1045; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 620
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018