References

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, “Driver Licensing Policies and Practices,” undated. As of July 12, 2015:
http://lpp.seniordrivers.org/lpp/index.cfm?selection=licenserenewal1

AAA Public Affairs, “Senior Licensing Laws,” March 3, 2010.

ACTS—See Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety.

Adams, Sharyn, Lindsay Bostwick, and Rebecca Campbell, Examining Illinois Probationer Characteristics and Outcomes, Chicago, Ill.: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, September 21, 2011. As of August 12, 2014:
http://www.idaillinois.org/cdm/ref/collection/edi/id/531726

Aeron-Thomas, Amy S., and Stephane Hess, “Red-Light Cameras for the Prevention of Road Traffic Crashes,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, CD003862, April 18, 2005.

Alemi, Farrokh, Faye Taxman, Victoria Doyon, Meridith Thanner, and Heibatollah Baghi, “Activity Based Costing of Probation With and Without Substance Abuse Treatment: A Case Study,” Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 51–57.

Aos, Steve, Stephanie Lee, Elizabeth Drake, Annie Pernucci, Tali Klima, Marna Miller, Laurie Anderson, Jim Mayfield, and Mason Burley, Return on Investment: Evidence-Based Options to Improve Statewide Outcomes, Technical Appendix I: Detailed Tables, Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, July 1, 2011a. As of August 12, 2014:
http://digitalarchives.wa.gov/WA.Media/do/5F9E7FFBD014136A367173175DA9630B.pdf

———, Return on Investment: Evidence-Based Options to Improve Statewide Outcomes, Technical Appendix II: Methods and User-Manual, Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, July 1, 2011b. As of August 12, 2014:
http://digitalarchives.wa.gov/WA.Media/do/4A6F5CED3DEA9ADDE881B4B1F731C06C.pdf

Arizona Revised Statutes Annotated, Title 28, Transportation, Chapter 4, Driving Under the Influence, Article 3, Driving Under the Influence, Section 1387, Prior Convictions; Alcohol or Other Drug Screening, Education and Treatment; License Suspension; Supervised Probation; Civil Liability; Procedures, 2014.

Arkansas Code Annotated, Title 5, Criminal Offenses, Subtitle 6, Offenses Against Public Health, Safety, or Welfare, Chapter 65, Driving While Intoxicated, Subchapter 1, General Provisions, Section 107, Persons Arrested to Be Tried on Charges; No Charges Reduced; Filing Citations, 2014.

Attewell, R. G., K. Glase, and M. McFadden, “Bicycle Helmet Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 33, No. 3, May 2001, pp. 345–352.

Automotive Coalition for Traffic Safety, 2001 Seat Belt Summit: Policy Options for Increasing Seat Belt Use in the United States in 2001 and Beyond, Arlington, Va., 2001.

Bae, Yong-Kyun, Primary Seat Belt Laws and Offsetting Behavior: Empirical Evidence from Individual Accident Data, Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper 30443, 2011. As of August 12, 2014:
http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/30443/

Bavon, A., and C. Standerfer, “The Effect of the 1997 Texas Motorcycle Helmet Law on Motorcycle Crash Fatalities,” Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 103, No. 1, January 2010, pp. 11–17.

Beck, Kenneth H., William J. Rauch, Elizabeth A. Baker, and Allan F. Williams, “Effects of Ignition Interlock License Restrictions on Drivers with Multiple Alcohol Offenses: A Randomized Trial in Maryland,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 89, No. 11, November 1999, pp. 1696–1700.

Beck, Laurie F., and Ruth A. Shults, “Seat Belt Use in States and Territories with Primary and Secondary Laws: United States, 2006,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 469–472.

Beck, Laurie F., and B. West, “Vital Signs: Nonfatal, Motor Vehicle–Occupant Injuries (2009) and Seat Belt Use (2008) Among Adults—United States,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 59, No. 51, January 7, 2011, pp. 1681–1686. As of August 12, 2014:
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5951a3.htm

Becker, Mike, information technology manager, Driver’s License and Motor Vehicle Systems, Information Technology Division, North Dakota Department of Transportation, “ND Response to Kentucky,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 21, 2010.

Beirness, Douglas J., Andrew Barham Clayton, and Ward Vanlaar, An Investigation of the Usefulness, the Acceptability and Impact on Lifestyle of Alcohol Ignition Interlocks in Drink-Driving Offenders, London: Department for Transport, Road Safety Research Report 88, November 2008. As of August 12, 2014:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120606181145/http:/assets.dft.gov.uk/publications/research-and-statistical-reports/investigation.pdf

Beirness, Douglas J., and Paul R. Marques, “Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programs,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2004, pp. 299–308.

Beirness, Douglas J., and Robyn D. Robertson, Alcohol Interlock Programs: Enhancing Acceptance, Participation and Compliance—Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programs, Hilton Head, South Carolina, October 27–28, 2003, Ottawa, Ont.: Traffic Injury Research Foundation, January 2005. As of August 12, 2014:
http://www.tirf.ca/publications/PDF_publications/Hilton_Head_Proceedings.pdf

Beirness, Douglas J., H. M. Simpson, D. R. Mayhew, and B. J. Jonah, “The Impact of Administrative License Suspension and Vehicle Impoundment for DWI in Manitoba,” in C. Mercier-Guyon, ed., Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety: T’97—Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, Annecy, 21 September–26 September 1997, Vol. 3, Annecy, France: Centre d’Etudes et de Récherches en Médecine du Trafic, 1997, pp. 919–925.

BHSI—See Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute, “Helmet Laws for Bicycle Riders,” last revised July 31, 2014; referenced March 24, 2014. As of August 12, 2014:
http://www.helmets.org/mandator.htm

Blincoe, Lawrence J., Ted R. Miller, Eduard Zaloshnja, and Bruce A. Lawrence, The Economic and Societal Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes, 2010, Washington, D.C.: National Center for Statistics and Analysis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 812 013, May 2014.

———, The Economic and Society Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes, 2010 (Revised), Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 812 013, May 2015. As of July 9, 2015:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812013.pdf

Blincoe, Lawrence J., Angela G. Seay, Eduard Zaloshnja, Ted R. Miller, Eduardo O. Romano, Stephen Luchter, and Rebecca S. Spicer, The Economic Impact of Motor Vehicle Crashes, 2000, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 446, May 2002. As of August 12, 2014:
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS98766

Bloch, Steven A., “The Cost of Drinking and Driving: Analysis of the Cost of a First Offense Misdemeanor Drinking and Driving Conviction in California,” briefing delivered at the 2013 California Association of Drinking Driver Treatment Programs Annual Conference, May 22, 2013.

BLS—See Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Boase, Paul, Brian A. Jonah, and Nancy Dawson, “Occupant Restraint Use in Canada,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2004, pp. 223–229.

Bombardieri, Marcella, “Court Mismatch Makes OUI Justice Elusive,” Boston Globe, November 13, 2011. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.bostonglobe.com/2011/11/13/spotlight-art/dOh30SKin5uAmO1ZctQakL/story.html

Bouffard, Jeffrey A., Katie A. Richardson, and Travis Franklin, “Drug Courts for DWI Offenders? The Effectiveness of Two Hybrid Drug Courts on DWI Offenders,” Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 38, No. 1, January–February 2010, pp. 25–33.

Bowman, J. F., and Jerry Stemler, “Sobriety Checkpoints: Doing More Checkpoints with LESS,” Police Chief, Vol. 72, No. 7, July 2005. As of August 12, 2014:
http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=638&issue_id=72005

Brixey, Suzanne N., Timothy E. Corden, Clare E. Guse, and Peter M. Layde, “Booster Seat Legislation: Does It Work for All Children?” Injury Prevention, Vol. 17, No. 4, August 2011, pp. 233–237.

Brixey, Suzanne N., Karthik Ravindran, and Clare E. Guse, “Legislating Child Restraint Usage: Its Effect on Self-Reported Child Restraint Use Rates in a Central City,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 41, No. 1, February 2010, pp. 47–52.

Brooks, Erin, Shelly Naud, and Steven Shapiro, “Are Youth-Only Motorcycle Helmet Laws Better Than None at All?” American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Vol. 31, No. 2, June 2010, pp. 125–129.

Brunson, William, and Pat Knighten, eds., Strategies for Addressing the DWI Offender: 10 Promising Sentencing Practices—A Compendium of Promising Sentencing Practices Proposed at the NHTSA National DWI Sentencing Summit at the National Judicial College, March 15–16, 2004, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 850, March 2005. As of March 24, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/enforce/PromisingSentence/images/10Promising.pdf

Bureau of Labor Statistics, “May 2011 State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates,” last modified March 27, 2012; referenced September 2011 and February 19, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.bls.gov/oes/2011/may/oessrcst.htm

Burkey, Mark L., and Kofi Obeng, A Detailed Investigation of Crash Risk Reduction Resulting from Red Light Cameras in Small Urban Areas, Greensboro, N.C.: Urban Transit Institute, July 2004.

Caldwell-Aden, Laura, Case Studies of Community-Based Self-Sufficient DWI Programs, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 300, July 2011. As of August 12, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811300.pdf

California Department of Motor Vehicles, “Reducing Field Office Transactions: Decision Document 75—DL Renewal On-Line and Send Renewal Notices On-Line,” Sacramento, Calif., March 3, 2004.

California Penal Code, Part 2, Of Criminal Procedure, Title 8, Of Judgment and Execution, Chapter 1, The Judgment, Section 1192.7, Limitation of Plea Bargaining, 2014.

———, Part 2, Of Criminal Procedure, Title 10, Miscellaneous Proceedings, Chapter 8, Dismissal of the Action for Want of Prosecution or Otherwise, Section 1385, Order Dismissing Action; Striking of Priors for Purposes of Sentence Enhancement, 2014.

California Performance Review, “GG12: Pay for California Drivers’ License Renewals Online,” undated; referenced October 16, 2014. As of July 12, 2015:
http://cpr.ca.gov/cpr_report/Issues_and_Recommendations/Chapter_1_General_Government/Creating_Customer_Friendly_Government/GG12.html

California Vehicle Code, Division 11.5, Sentencing for Driving While Under the Influence, Chapter 4, Procedures, Article 4, Dismissal on the Record, Section 23635, Specifications of Reasons, 2014.

Carnegie, Jon A., Kaan Ozbay, and Sandeep Mudigonda, Study of the Effects of Plea Bargaining Motor Vehicle Offenses, New Brunswick, N.J.: New Jersey Department of Transportation Bureau of Research and U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, FHWA NJ-2009-018, December 2009. As of November 5, 2011:
http://www.nj.gov/transportation/refdata/research/reports/FHWA-NJ-2009-018.pdf

Carpenter, Christopher S., and Mark F. Stehr, Intended and Unintended Effects of Youth Bicycle Helmet Laws, Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 15658, January 2010. As of March 25, 2014:
http://www.nber.org/papers/w15658

Cass County, Missouri, Cass County DWI Court Participant Manual, revised March 16, 2011. As of May 2, 2014:
http://casscounty.com/prosattny/DWI_Court_Participant_Manual.pdf

Castle, Shannon L., Rita V. Burke, Helen Arbogast, and Jeffrey S. Upperman, “Bicycle Helmet Legislation and Injury Patterns in Trauma Patients Under Age 18,” Journal of Surgical Research, Vol. 173, No. 2, April 2012, pp. 327–331.

Caulkins, Jonathan P., and Robert L. DuPont, “Is 24/7 Sobriety a Good Goal for Repeat Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Offenders?” Addiction, Vol. 105, No. 4, April 2010, pp. 575–577.

CDC—See Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support, “CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving in the United States,” teleconference, October 11, 2011.

———, “Winnable Battles: Motor Vehicle Injuries,” updated April 15, 2014a. As of August 14, 2014:
https://www.cdc.gov/winnablebattles/

———, “WISQARS™: Your Source for U.S. Injury Statistics,” updated July 10, 2014b; referenced February 17, 2014. As of August 12, 2014:
https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html

———, “Motor Vehicle Prioritizing Interventions and Cost Calculator for States (MV PICCS),” last updated September 18, 2014c. As of July 9, 2015:
https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/calculator/

Century Council, Hard Core Drunk Driving: A Sourcebook of Promising Strategies, Laws and Programs, Arlington, Va., 2003.

———, The National Agenda: A System to Fight Hardcore DWI, Appendix B: National Hardcore Drunk Driver Project, Arlington, Va., 2008.

Charter, Michael, Department of Motor Vehicles project specialist, Vermont Department of Motor Vehicles, “Information on Web Usage for DMV,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 22, 2010.

Chaudhary, Neil K., K. A. Ledingham, D. W. Eby, and L. J. Molnar, Evaluating Older Drivers’ Skills, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 773, May 2013. As of July 12, 2015:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811773.pdf

Chaudhary, Neil K., Julie Tison, and Tara Casanova, Evaluation of Maine’s Seat Belt Law Change from Secondary to Primary Enforcement, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 259, 2010. As of March 25, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811259.pdf

Chen, Greg, “Safety and Economic Impacts of Photo Radar Program,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2005, pp. 299–307.

Chen, Yuan Yan, and Tony Jianqiang Ye, “Seat Belt Use in 2009: Use Rates in the States and Territories,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 811 324, May 2010. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/811324.pdf

Child Injury Prevention Tool, home page, undated; referenced October 15, 2013. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.childinjuryprevention.org

Children’s Safety Network, “Sobriety Checkpoints Save Money and Lives,” Calverton, Md., October 2005. As of June 13, 2013:
http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/sites/childrenssafetynetwork.org/files/sobriety_checkpoints_injury_cost_prevention.pdf

Children’s Safety Network and Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Injury Prevention: What Works? A Summary of Cost–Outcome Analysis for Injury Prevention Programs (2012 Update), Calverton, Md., May 1, 2012. As of June 17, 2013:
http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org/sites/childrenssafetynetwork.org/files/InjuryPreventionWhatWorks2012.pdf

Chisholm, Dan, Jurgen Rehm, Mark Van Ommeren, and Maristela Monteiro, “Reducing the Global Burden of Hazardous Alcohol Use: A Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Analysis,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 65, No. 6, November 2004, pp. 782–793.

City of Las Cruces (New Mexico), A Resolution Authorizing the City of Las Cruces, on Behalf of Its Police Department to Accept a Grant Award for a Total Amount of $134,557.00 from the New Mexico Department of Transportation, to Ratify the City Manager’s Signature on the Consolidated Project Agreement, and to Adjust the FY 2013 Budget, Resolution 13-080, December 17, 2012.

City of Menlo Park (California), Photo Red Light Enforcement Program, exclusive agreement between the City of Menlo Park, California, and Redflex Traffic Systems, 2006.

Clayton, Michael C., and Bridgett P. Helms, “Increasing Seat Belt Use on a College Campus: An Evaluation of Two Prompting Procedures,” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 42, No. 1, Spring 2009, p. 161–164.

Coben, Jeffrey H., Claudia A. Steiner, and Ted R. Miller, “Characteristics of Motorcycle-Related Hospitalizations: Comparing States with Different Helmet Laws,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 39, No. 1, January 2007, pp. 190–196.

Cohen, Joshua T., and John D. Graham, “A Revised Economic Analysis of Restrictions on the Use of Cell Phones While Driving,” Risk Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 1, February 2003, pp. 5–17.

Colorado Revised Statutes, Title 42, Vehicles and Traffic, Regulation of Vehicles and Traffic, Article 4, Regulation of Vehicles and Traffic, Part 13, Alcohol and Drug Offenses, Section 42-4-1301, Driving Under the Influence; Driving While Impaired; Driving with Excessive Alcoholic Content; Definitions; Penalties, 2013.

Connecticut General Statutes, Title 14, Motor Vehicles, Use of the Highway by Vehicles, Gasoline, Chapter 248, Vehicle Highway Use, Section 14-227a, Operation While Under the Influence of Liquor or Drug or While Having an Elevated Blood Alcohol Content, 2014.

Conner, Kristen A., Huiyun Xiang, and Gary A. Smith, “The Impact of a Standard Enforcement Safety Belt Law on Fatalities and Hospital Charges in Ohio,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 41, No. 1, February 2010, pp. 17–23.

Cooper, Douglas L., Ted Chira-Chavala, and David Gillen, Safety and Other Impacts of Vehicle Impound Enforcement, Berkeley, Calif.: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Berkeley, UCB-ITS-RR-2000-1, February 2000.

Council, Forrest M., Bhagwant Persaud, Kimberly Eccles, Craig Lyon, and Michael S. Griffith, Safety Evaluation of Red-Light Cameras, McLean, Va.: Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office and Office of Safety Research and Development, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-HRT-05-048, April 2005. As of August 12, 2014:
http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pubs/05048/index.htm

Croce, Martin A., Ben L. Zarzaur, Louis J. Magnotti, and Timothy C. Fabian, “Impact of Motorcycle Helmets and State Laws on Society’s Burden: A National Study,” Annals of Surgery, Vol. 250, No. 3, September 2009, pp. 390–394.

Cummings, P., F. P. Rivara, C. M. Olson, and K. M. Smith, “Changes in Traffic Crash Mortality Rates Attributed to Use of Alcohol, or Lack of a Seat Belt, Air Bag, Motorcycle Helmet, or Bicycle Helmet, United States, 1982–2001,” Injury Prevention, Vol. 12, No. 3, June 2006, pp. 148–154.

Cunningham, Christopher M., and Joseph E. Hummer, “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Red-Light Running Camera Enforcement in Raleigh, North Carolina,” Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2010, pp. 312–324.

Cunningham, Christopher M., Joseph E. Hummer, and Jae-Pil Moon, An Evaluation of the Safety Effects of Speed Enforcement Cameras in Charlotte, North Carolina, Raleigh, N.C.: Institute for Transportation Research and Education, North Carolina State University, 2005.

———, “Analysis of Automated Speed Enforcement Cameras in Charlotte, North Carolina,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2078, 2008, pp. 127–134. As of August 12, 2014:
http://trb.metapress.com/content/u1q051867526335j/

Decina, Lawrence E., William L. Hall, and Kathy H. Lococo, Booster Seat Law Enforcement: Examples from Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Washington, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 247, February 2010. As of March 25, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811247.pdf

Decina, Lawrence E., and Kathy H. Lococo, Misuse of Child Restraints, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 671, January 2004. As of August 12, 2014:
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS107335

Decina, Lawrence E., Kathy H. Lococo, Warren Ashburn, William B. Hall, and Janelle Rose, Identifying Strategies to Improve the Effectiveness of Booster Seat Laws, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 969, 2008.

Decina, Lawrence E., Libby Thomas, Raghavan Srinivasan, and Loren Staplin, Automated Enforcement: A Compendium of Worldwide Evaluations of Results, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 763, September 2007. As of August 12, 2014:
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS97974

Delaney, Amanda, Kathy Diamantopoulou, and Max Cameron, MUARC’s Speed Enforcement Research: Principles Learnt and Implications for Practice, Clayton, Vic.: Monash University Accident Research Centre, Report 200, March 2003.

Delaney, Amanda, Heather Ward, Max Cameron, and Allan F. Williams, “Controversies and Speed Cameras: Lessons Learnt Internationally,” Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 26, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 404–415.

Dellinger, Ann M., and Marcie-Jo Kresnow, “Bicycle Helmet Use Among Children in the United States: The Effects of Legislation, Personal and Household Factors,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 41, No. 4, August 2010, pp. 375–380.

Dennis, Jessica, Beth Potter, Tim Ramsay, and Ryan Zarychanski, “The Effects of Provincial Bicycle Helmet Legislation on Helmet Use and Bicycle Ridership in Canada,” Injury Prevention, Vol. 16, No. 4, August 2010, pp. 219–224.

Dennis, Jessica, Tim Ramsay, Alexis F. Turgeon, and Ryan Zarychanski, “Helmet Legislation and Admissions to Hospital for Cycling Related Head Injuries in Canadian Provinces and Territories: Interrupted Time Series Analysis,” BMJ, Vol. 346, No. f2674, May 2013.

Derrick, Allison J., and Lee D. Faucher, “Motorcycle Helmets and Rider Safety: A Legislative Crisis,” Journal of Public Health Policy, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2009, pp. 226–242.

Deutermann, William, Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness Revisited, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 715, March 2004. As of August 13, 2014:
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS98140

DeYoung, David J., “An Evaluation of the Specific Deterrent Effects of Vehicle Impoundment on Suspended, Revoked, and Unlicensed Drivers in California,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 31, No. 1–2, January 1999, pp. 45–53.

———, “An Evaluation of the General Deterrent Effects of Vehicle Impoundment on Suspended and Revoked Drivers in California,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2000, pp. 51–59.

DeYoung, David J., Helen N. Tashima, and Scott V. Masten, Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Ignition Interlock in California: Technical Report, Sacramento, Calif.: California Department of Motor Vehicles, Research and Development Section, CAL-DMV-RSS-05-217, September 2005. As of August 13, 2014:
https://www.dmv.ca.gov/about/profile/rd/r_d_report/Section%205/217_ignition_interlock_technical_report.pdf

Dinh-Zarr, Tho Bella, David A. Sleet, Ruth A. Shults, Stephanie Zaza, Randy W. Elder, James L. Nichols, Robert S. Thompson, Daniel M. Sosin, and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, “Reviews of Evidence Regarding Interventions to Increase the Use of Safety Belts,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 4S, 2001, pp. 48–65.

“DMV Needs More Online Services, Audit Finds,” Charleston Gazette, December 14, 2013. As of July 12, 2015:
http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201312140027

Du, Wei, Caroline F. Finch, Andrew Hayen, Lynne Bilston, Julie Brown, and Julie Hatfield, “Relative Benefits of Population-Level Interventions Targeting Restraint-Use in Child Car Passengers,” Pediatrics, Vol. 125, No. 2, February 1, 2010, pp. 304–312.

Dunlap, Barbara, “The History of the Bicycle Helmet,” web page, May 26, 2011.

Eby, David W., Lidia P. Kostyniuk, Lisa J. Molnar, Jonathon M. Vivoda, and Linda L. Miller, “The Effect of Changing from Secondary to Primary Safety Belt Enforcement on Police Harassment,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, No. 5, September 2004, pp. 819–828.

Eby, David W., Lidia P. Kostyniuk, Helen Spradlin, Krishnan Sudharsan, Jennifer S. Zakrajsek, and Linda L. Miller, An Evaluation of Michigan’s Repeat Alcohol Offender Laws: Executive Summary, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, UMTRI-2002-23a, September 2002. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.michiganprosecutor.org/tstp/hot_topics/UMTRI_Study_%20Executive_Summary_Repeat_Offender.pdf

Ecola, Liisa, Benjamin Batorsky, and Jeanne S. Ringel, Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Prioritize Spending on Traffic Safety, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-1224-RWJ, forthcoming (a).

———, A New Tool to Help Decisionmakers Select Interventions to Reduce Traffic Crash Deaths and Injuries, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-9827-CDC, forthcoming (b).

———, How to Get the Biggest Impact from an Increase in Spending on Traffic Safety, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-9855, forthcoming (c).

———, Should Traffic Crash Interventions Be Selected Nationally or State by State? Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-9860, forthcoming (d).

Ecola, Liisa, Rebecca L. Collins, and Elisa Eiseman, Understanding and Reducing Off-Duty Vehicle Crashes Among Military Personnel, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, TR-820-DSOC, 2010. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR820.html

Ecola, Liisa, and Jeanne S. Ringel, Which Behavioral Interventions are Most Cost-Effective in Reducing Drunk Driving? Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-9826-CDC, forthcoming.

Eisen, Lauren-Brooke, “Should Judges Know the Costs of Sentencing Options at Their Disposal?” Vera Institute of Justice, March 1, 2011. As of December 21, 2012:
http://www.vera.org/blog/missouri-should-judges-know-costs-sentencing-options

Elder, Randy W., Ruth A. Shults, David A. Sleet, James L. Nichols, Stephanie Zaza, and Robert S. Thompson, “Effectiveness of Sobriety Checkpoints for Reducing Alcohol-Involved Crashes,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2002, pp. 266–274.

Elder, Randy W., Robert Voas, Doug Beirness, Ruth A. Shults, David A. Sleet, James L. Nichols, and Richard Compton, “Effectiveness of Ignition Interlocks for Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving and Alcohol-Related Crashes: A Community Guide Systematic Review,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 3, March 2011, pp. 362–76.

Elvik, Rune, “How Would Setting Policy Priorities According to Cost-Benefit Analyses Affect the Provision of Road Safety?” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 2003, pp. 557–570.

Erke, Alena, Charles Goldenbeld, and Truls Vaa, “The Effects of Drink-Driving Checkpoints on Crashes: A Meta-Analysis,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 41, No. 5, September 2009, pp. 914–923.

Farmer, Charles M., and Allan F. Williams, “Effect on Fatality Risk of Changing from Secondary to Primary Seat Belt Enforcement,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2005, pp. 189–194.

Farnsworth, Grant D., Thomas M. Brennan Jr., and Darcy M. Bullock, Recovering Full Repair Costs of INDOT Infrastructure Damaged by Motor Vehicle Crashes, West Lafayette, Ind.: Joint Transportation Research Program, Indiana Department of Transportation and Purdue University, FHWA/IN/JTRP-2011/11, 2011. As of August 13, 2014:
http://files.library.northwestern.edu/transportation/online/unrestricted/2011/FHWA-IN-JTRP-2011-11.pdf

Farragher, Thomas, “For Drunk Drivers, a Habit of Judicial Leniency,” Boston Globe, October 30, 2011. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2011/10/29/for-drunk-drivers-habit-judicial-leniency/D7eox8ius6dwevTbHXwOUO/story.html

Farrow, Scott, and Hiroshi Hayakawa, “Investing in Safety: An Analytical Precautionary Principle,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 33, No. 2, Summer 2002, pp. 165–174.

FBI—See Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Crime in the United States 2011, Washington, D.C., 2011a. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011

———, Crime in the United States 2010, Washington, D.C., September 2011b. As of September 11, 2014:
http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010

Federal Highway Administration, “Red-Light Camera Enforcement: Implementation Guidance,” undated; referenced December 19, 2012. As of August 13, 2014:
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/redlight/cameras/ipl_guide.cfm

———, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, Washington, D.C., c. 1995. As of July 31, 2015:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/summary95/

———, Red Light Camera Systems Operational Guidelines, Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-05-002, January 2005. As of August 13, 2014:
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/redlight/cameras/fhwasa05002/fhwasa05002.pdf

———, “Highway Statistics Series: Highway Statistics 2011,” last modified November 7, 2014. As of July 12, 2015:
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2011/dl22.cfm

Federal Highway Administration and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Speed Enforcement Camera Systems Operational Guidelines, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 916, 2008. As of August 13, 2014:
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/speedmgt/ref_mats/fhwasa09028/5.htm

Fell, James C., Christine Compton, and Robert B. Voas, “A Note on the Use of Passive Alcohol Sensors During Routine Traffic Stops,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 9, No. 6, December 2008, pp. 534–538.

Fell, James C., Susan A. Ferguson, Allan F. Williams, and Michele Fields, “Why Are Sobriety Checkpoints Not Widely Adopted as an Enforcement Strategy in the United States?” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 35, No. 6, November 2003, pp. 897–902.

Fell, James C., John H. Lacey, and Robert B. Voas, “Sobriety Checkpoints: Evidence of Effectiveness Is Strong, but Use Is Limited,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2004, pp. 220–227.

Fell, James C., Elizabeth A. Langston, John H. Lacey, and A. Scott Tippetts, Evaluation of Seven Publicized Enforcement Demonstration Programs to Reduce Impaired Driving: Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 941, February 2008. As of March 25, 2014:
http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/30000/30200/30205/810941.pdf

Fell, James C., A. Scott Tippetts, and J. DeCarlo Ciccel, “An Evaluation of Three Driving-Under-the-Influence Courts in Georgia,” Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine, Vol. 54, January 2010, pp. 1–13.

Fell, James C., A. Scott Tippetts, and M. Levy, “Evaluation of Seven Publicized Enforcement Demonstration Programs to Reduce Impaired Driving: Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan,” Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine, Vol. 52, October 2008, pp. 23–38.

Finigan, Michael W., Shannon M. Carey, and Anton Cox, Impact of a Mature Drug Court over 10 Years of Operation: Recidivism and Costs (Final Report), Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, April 2007. As of April 28, 2014:
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/219225.pdf

FHWA—See Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA and NHTSA—See Federal Highway Administration and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Florida Statutes, Title XXIII, Motor Vehicles, Chapter 316, State Uniform Traffic Control, Section 316.656, Mandatory Adjudication; Prohibition Against Accepting Plea to Lesser Included Offense, 2014.

Freedman, Mark, D. De Leonardis, G. Raisman, D. InyoSwan, A. Davis, S. Levi, I. Rogers, and E. Bergeron, Demonstration of Automated Speed Enforcement in School Zones in Portland, Oregon, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 764, February 2006. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20Control/Articles/Associated%20Files/HS810764.pdf

Gains, Adrian, Benjamin Heydecker, John Shrewsbury, and Sandy Robertson, The National Safety Camera Programme: Three-Year Evaluation Report, London: UK Department for Transport, June 2004. As of August 13, 2014:
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090104005813/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roadsafety/speedmanagement/nscp/nscp/thenationalsafetycameraprogr4599

GAO—See U.S. General Accounting Office.

Garber, Nicholas J., John S. Miller, R. Elizabeth Abel, Saeed Eslambolchi, and Santhosh K. Korukonda, The Impact of Red Light Cameras (Photo-Red Enforcement) on Crashes in Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.: Virginia Transportation Research Council, VTRC 07-R2, 2007. As of March 25, 2014:
http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/07-r2.pdf

GHSA—See Governors Highway Safety Association.

Gilbert, Hope, Neil K. Chaudhary, Mark G. Solomon, David F. Preusser, and Linda Cosgrove, Evaluation of the Reinstatement of the Helmet Law in Louisiana, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 956, May 2008.

Glassbrenner, Donna, Safety Belt Use in 2005: Overall Results, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 932, August 2005. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/809932.PDF

Glassbrenner, Donna, and Jianqiang Ye, Motorcycle Helmet Use in 2006: Overall Results, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 678, 2006.

Goodwin, Arthur, Robert D. Foss, James H. Hedlund, Jamie Sohn, Ronald Pfefer, Timothy R. Neuman, Kevin L. Slack, and Kelly K. Hardy, Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Vol. 16: A Guide for Reducing Alcohol-Related Collisions, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500, 2005.

Goodwin, Arthur, Bevan Kirley, Laura Sandt, William Hall, Libby Thomas, Natalie O’Brien, and Daniel Summerlin, Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 7th ed., Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 727, April 2013. As of August 13, 2014:
http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1249637

Goslar, Pamela W., Michelle Silvers, Tiffiny Strever, Daniel Judkins, Paula Segebarth, and Cecilia Lerma, “Lessons from a Statewide Pilot of ‘The Battle of the Belts Project’ in a State Without a Primary Seat Belt Law,” Journal of Trauma, Vol. 67, No. 1, Suppl., July 2009, pp. S62–S66.

Governor’s Statewide Multi-Agency DWI Strategic Planning Team, New Mexico Multi-Agency DWI Strategic Plan, December 2003.

Governors Highway Safety Association, “Highway Safety Law Charts,” undated; referenced February 17, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.statehighwaysafety.org/html/stateinfo/laws/index.html

———, “Helmet Laws,” August 2014a; referenced March 25, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.ghsa.org/html/stateinfo/laws/helmet_laws.html

———, “Sobriety Checkpoint Laws,” August 2014b; referenced March 25, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.ghsa.org/html/stateinfo/laws/checkpoint_laws.html

———, “Speed and Red Light Camera Laws,” August 2014c; referenced March 25, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.ghsa.org/html/stateinfo/laws/auto_enforce.html

Grabowski, David C., Christine M. Campbell, and Michael A. Morrisey, “Elderly Licensure Laws and Motor Vehicle Fatalities,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 291, No. 23, June 16, 2004, pp. 2840–2846.

Grant, Darren, and Stephen M. Rutner, “The Effect of Bicycle Helmet Legislation on Bicycling Fatalities,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 23, No. 3, Summer 2004, pp. 595–611.

Greene, Jeffrey W., “Battling DUI: A Comparative Analysis of Checkpoints and Saturation Patrols,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 72, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 1–6.

Griffin, JoAnn, Arizona Department of Transportation, “ServiceArizona: Online Motor Vehicle Transactions,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, January 21, 2011a.

———, “ServiceArizona: Online Motor Vehicle Transactions,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, January 25, 2011b.

Gruber, John, director of financial analysis and reconciliation, Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, “Information for Kentucky Transportation Center,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 29, 2010.

Gunn, Veronica L., Rhonda M. Phillippi, and William O. Cooper, “Improvement in Booster Seat Use in Tennessee,” Pediatrics, Vol. 119, No. 1, January 2007, pp. e131–e136.

Hallmark, Shauna, Massiel Orellana, Eric J. Fitzsimmons, Thomas McDonald, and David Matulac, “Red Light Running in Iowa: Automated Enforcement Program Evaluation with Bayesian Analysis,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2182, 2010, pp. 48–54.

Hamelin, Fabrice, “Renewal of Public Policy via Instrumental Innovation: Implementing Automated Speed Enforcement in France,” Governance, Vol. 23, No. 3, July 2010, pp. 509–530.

Harshfield, Ruth, director, Safe Kids Oregon, email communication with Liisa Ecola, July 22, 2013.

Hawk, Soaring, and James Lopez, Local DWI Grant Program FY 2005 Program Evaluation Final Report, Santa Fe, N.M.: New Mexico Department of Finance and Administration, Local Government Division, Local DWI Program, c. 2005. As of August 13, 2014:
http://isr.unm.edu/reports/2005/chaves-county-local-dwi-grant-program-fy-2005-program-evaluation-final-report.pdf

Hedlund, James H., S. Hope Gilbert, Katherine Ledingham, and David Preusser, How States Achieve High Seat Belt Use Rates, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 962, August 2008. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/810962.PDF

Hedlund, James H., and Anne T. McCartt, Drunk Driving: Seeking Additional Solutions, Trumbull, Conn.: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, May 2002.

Henrichson, Christian, and Ruth Elizabeth Delaney, The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers, New York: Vera Institute of Justice, January 10, 2012. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.vera.org/pubs/special/price-prisons-what-incarceration-costs-taxpayers

Hill, Joanne, and Caroline Starrs, Saving Lives, Saving Money: The Costs and Benefits of Achieving Safe Roads, Basingstoke, UK: Road Safety Foundation, April 2011.

House, David, Oregon Department of Motor Vehicles Public Affairs, “DMV Web Site Activity,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 2, 2010.

Houston, David J., “Are Helmet Laws Protecting Young Motorcyclists?” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2007, pp. 329–336.

———, “The Case for Universal Motorcycle Helmet Laws,” Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 103, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1–2.

Houston, David J., and Lilliard E. Richardson Jr., “Getting Americans to Buckle Up: The Efficacy of State Seat Belt Laws,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 37, No. 6, November 2005, pp. 1114–1120.

———, “Motorcycle Safety and the Repeal of Universal Helmet Laws,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 97, No. 11, November 2007, pp. 2063–2069.

———, “Motorcyclist Fatality Rates and Mandatory Helmet-Use Laws,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2008, pp. 200–208.

Houston, Marcus, Vicky Cassabaum, Susan Matzick, Theresa Rapstine, Shirley Terry, Phyllis Uribe, Jeri Harwood, and Steven Moulton, “Teen Traffic Safety Campaign: Competition Is the Key,” Journal of Trauma, Vol. 68, No. 3, March 2010, pp. 511–514.

Hu, Wen, Anne T. McCartt, and Eric R. Teoh, “Effects of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Fatal Crashes in Large U.S. Cities,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 42, No. 4, August 2011, pp. 277–282.

IIHS—See Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, “Laws and Regulations,” undated; referenced February 17, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics#statelaws

———, Status Report, Special Issue: Crash Avoidance Features, Vol. 43, No. 3, April 17, 2008.

———, Communities Using Red Light and/or Speed Cameras as of August 2010, Arlington, Va., 2010a.

———, Current U.S. Motorcycle and Bicycle Helmet Laws, 2010b.

———, History of U.S. Motorcycle Laws and Changes in Coverage, Arlington, Va., 2010c.

———, Current U.S. Motorcycle and Bicycle Helmet Laws, Arlington, Va., 2011a.

———, DUI/DWI Laws, Arlington, Va., 2011b.

———, DUI/DWI Laws: State Court Decisions on the Constitutionality of Sobriety Checkpoints, Arlington, Va., 2012.

———, “Red Light Running,” March 2014a; referenced March 25, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/red-light-running/qanda#red-light-running

———, “Automated Enforcement,” August 2014b; referenced March 25, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/laws/automated_enforcement

———, “DUI/DWI,” August 2014c; referenced March 25, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/laws/dui

———, “Safety Belts,” September 2014d; referenced March 25, 2014. As of September 10, 2014:
http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/laws/safetybeltuse?topicName=safety-belts

———, “Older Drivers,” July 2015; referenced July 12, 2015. As of July 12, 2015:
http://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/laws/olderdrivers

Iowa Code, Title VIII, Transportation, Subtitle 2, Vehicles, Chapter 321J, Operating While Intoxicated, Section 321J.2, Operating While Under the Influence of Alcohol or a Drug While Having an Alcohol Concentration of .08 or More (OWI), 2013.

———, Title XVI, Criminal Law and Procedure, Subtitle 3, Criminal Corrections, Chapter 907, Deferred Judgment, Deferred or Suspended Sentence, and Probation, Section 907.3, Deferred Judgment, Deferred Sentence, or Suspended Sentence, 2013.

Jacobson, Sheldon H., Douglas M. King, Kevin C. Ryan, and Matthew J. Robbins, “Assessing the Long Term Benefit of Banning the Use of Hand-Held Wireless Devices While Driving,” Transportation Research, Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 46, No. 10, December 2012, pp. 1586–1593.

Joerger, Mark, Photo Radar Speed Enforcement in a State Highway Work Zone: Demonstration Project Yeon Avenue, Salem, Ore.: Oregon Department of Transportation, OR-RD-10-17, April 2010. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/TD/TP_RES/docs/Reports/2010/PhotoRadar_Speed.pdf

Jones, Marian Moser, and Ronald Bayer, “Paternalism and Its Discontents: Motorcycle Helmet Laws, Libertarian Values, and Public Health,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 97, No. 2, February 2007, pp. 208–217.

Jones, Ralph K., and John H. Lacey, State of Knowledge of Alcohol-Impaired Driving: Research on Repeat DWI Offenders, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, March 2000.

Jones, Ralph K., and C. Rodriguez-Iglesias, Evaluation of Lower BAC Limits for Convicted OUI Offenders in Maine, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 827, December 2004. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/alcohol/Maine-BAC-Limits/

Jones, Ralph K., Connie H. Wiliszowski, and John H. Lacey, Examination of DWI Conviction Rate Procedures, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 808 970, 1999.

Judicial Council of California, “Uniform Bail and Penalty Schedules: Traffic, Boating, Fish and Game, Forestry, Public Utilities, Parks and Recreation, Business Licensing,” California Rule of Court 4.102, amended effective July 1, 2013. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.courts.ca.gov/cms/rules/index.cfm?title=four&linkid=rule4_102

Kanny, Dafna, Richard A. Schieber, Vickie Pryor, and Marcie-Jo Kresnow, “Effectiveness of a State Law Mandating Use of Bicycle Helmets Among Children: An Observational Evaluation,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 154, No. 11, December 2001, pp. 1072–1076.

Kansas Statutes Annotated, Chapter 8, Automobiles and Other Vehicles, Article 15, Uniform Act Regulating Traffic; Rules of the Road, Serious Traffic Offenses, Section 8-1567, Driving under the Influence; Penalties, 2013.

Karkhaneh, M., J.-C. Kalenga, B. E. Hagel, and B. H. Rowe, “Effectiveness of Bicycle Helmet Legislation to Increase Helmet Use: A Systematic Review,” Injury Prevention, Vol. 12, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 76–82.

Kentucky Revised Statutes Annotated, Title XVI, Motor Vehicles, Chapter 189A, Driving Under the Influence, Section 189A.120, Prosecutor’s Duties with Regard to Amendment of Charges; Amendment of Blood Alcohol Concentration; Record of Charges and Amendments, 2014.

Kostyniuk, Lidia P., L. J. Molnar, R. M. St. Louis, N. Zanier, and D. W. Eby, Societal Costs of Traffic Crashes and Crime in Michigan: 2011 Update, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, UMTRI-2011-21, 2011. As of August 13, 2014:
http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/85175

Kyrychenko, Sergey Y., and Anne T. McCartt, “Florida’s Weakened Motorcycle Helmet Law: Effects on Death Rates in Motorcycle Crashes,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2006, pp. 55–60.

Lacey, John H., Susan A. Ferguson, Tara Kelley-Baker, and Raamses P. Rider, “Low-Manpower Checkpoints: Can They Provide Effective DUI Enforcement in Small Communities?” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 7, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 213–218.

Lacey, John H., Tara Kelley-Baker, Katharine Brainard, Scott Tippetts, and Maria Lyakhovich, Evaluation of the Checkpoint Strikeforce Program, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 056, November 2008.

Lahausse, Julie A., and Brian N. Fildes, “Cost–Benefit Analysis of an Alcohol Ignition Interlock for Installation in All Newly Registered Vehicles,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 10, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 528–537.

Landman, Adam B., Michael S. Phipps, Kimberly Jawin, Lauri Bolton, Carin M. Van Gelder, Richard Kamin, Bill Teel, and Federico E. Vaca, “Helmet Use in Connecticut Motorcycle Crashes: A State Without a Universal Helmet Law,” Connecticut Medicine, Vol. 75, No. 5, May 2011, pp. 261–268.

Langford, Jim, Rob Methorst, and Liisa Hakamies-Blomqvist, “Older Drivers Do Not Have a High Crash Risk: A Replication of Low Mileage Bias,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 38, No. 3, May 2006, pp. 574–578.

Large, John T., Barbara Orban, and Etienne E. Pracht, “Analysis Violates Principles of Sound Research and Public Health Evaluation,” American Journal of Public Health, letter to the editor, October 30, 2008.

Lawrence, Bruce A., Wendy Max, and Ted R. Miller, Costs of Injuries Resulting from Motorcycle Crashes: A Literature Review, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 242, November 2002. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/motorcycle_html/trd.html

Leaf, William A., and David F. Preusser, Evaluation of Minnesota’s Vehicle Plate Impoundment Law for Impaired Drivers, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2011.

Lim, Siew Hoon, and Junwook Chi, “Are Cell Phone Laws in the U.S. Effective in Reducing Fatal Crashes Involving Young Drivers?” Transport Policy, Vol. 27, May 2013, pp. 158–163.

Liu, Bette C., Rebecca Ivers, Robyn Norton, Soufiane Boufous, Stephanie Blows, and Sing Kai Lo, “Helmets for Preventing Injury in Motorcycle Riders,” Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2008.

Loftis, Matthew, Aleksander Ksiazkiewicz, and Robert M. Stein, Report on the Effects of Houston-Area Red Light Monitoring Cameras, Houston, Texas: James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, August 16, 2011. As of August 13, 2014:
http://bakerinstitute.org/research/report-on-the-effects-of-houston-area-red-light-monitoring-cameras/

“Longview Council Chooses Red-Light Camera Contractor,” Daily News Online, July 25, 2010. As of August 12, 2014:
http://tdn.com/news/local/longview-council-chooses-red-light-camera-contractor/article_f07e3e82-9879-11df-92e9-001cc4c002e0.html

Lund, Adrian K., Sergey Y. Kyrychenko, and Richard A. Retting, “Caution: A Comment on Alena Erke’s Red Light for Red-Light Cameras? A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Red-Light Cameras on Crashes,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 41, No. 4, July 2009, pp. 895–896.

Maccubbin, Robert P., Barbara L. Staples, and Arthur E. Salwin, Automated Enforcement of Traffic Signals: A Literature Review, Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration, August 13, 2001.

MacDonald, John M., Andrew R. Morral, Barbara Raymond, and Christine Eibner, “The Efficacy of the Rio Hondo DUI Court: A 2-Year Field Experiment,” Evaluation Review, Vol. 31, No. 1, February 1, 2007, pp. 4–23.

Macpherson, Alison, and Anneliese Spinks, “Bicycle Helmet Legislation for the Uptake of Helmet Use and Prevention of Head Injuries,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, July 16, 2008, p. CD005401.

Madsen, Travis, and Phineas Baxandall, Caution: Red Light Cameras Ahead—The Risks of Privatizing Traffic Law Enforcement and How to Protect the Public, Baltimore, Md.: Maryland Public Interest Research Group Foundation, 2011. As of March 26, 2014:
http://www.marylandpirg.org/sites/pirg/files/reports/Caution-Red-Light-Cameras-Ahead-.pdf

Malone, Kevin R., public information officer, Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles, “Information on Web Site Usage for DMV,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 13, 2010.

“Managing Your Impound Lot and Understanding Contract Specs (Part 1 of 2),” American Towman, November 2002. As of March 24, 2014:
http://www.towman.com/2/bestofat0027.html

Manatee County (Florida) Tax Collector, “Ignition Interlock (P Restriction),” Bradenton, Fla., last update July 15, 2014; referenced March 26, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.taxcollector.com/docs/cip/dl/DUI_IID.pdf

Marques, Paul R., ed. Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices, Vol. II: Research, Policy and Program Status 2005, Oosterhout, the Netherlands: International Council on Alcohol, Drugs and Traffic Safety, 2005.

———, “Technology Today: Controlling DWI Offenders with Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programs,” paper presented at the Mothers Against Drunk Driving International Technology Symposium: A Nation Without Drunk Driving, Irving, Texas, November 2006.

Marques, Paul R., Scott Tippetts, John Allen, Martin Javors, Christer Alling, Michel Yegles, Fritz Pragst, and Friedrich Wurst, “Estimating Driver Risk Using Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock Blood Alcohol Concentration Tests and Psychometric Assessments: Initial Descriptives,” Addiction, Vol. 105, No. 2, February 2010, pp. 226–239.

Marques, Paul R., and Robert B. Voas, Key Features for Ignition Interlock Programs, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 262, March 2010. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/impaired_driving/pdf/811262.pdf

Marques, Paul R., Robert B. Voas, Richard Roth, and A. Scott Tippetts, Evaluation of the New Mexico Ignition Interlock Program, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 410, November 2010. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811410.pdf

Martin, Andrew, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, “Information on Online Drivers [sic] License Renewal Costs,” email to Liisa Ecola, February 4, 2014.

Maryland Department of Transportation Motor Vehicle Administration, “Ignition Interlock Program,” undated; referenced March 18, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.mva.maryland.gov/About-MVA/INFO/26200/26200-14T.htm

Massachusetts Annotated Laws, Part I, Administration of the Government, Title XIV, Public Ways and Works, Chapter 90, Motor Vehicles and Aircraft, Section 24, Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicating Liquor or Controlled Substance, 2014.

Masten, Scott, “The Effects of Changing to Primary Enforcement on Daytime and Nighttime Seat Belt Use,” Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 743, March 2007. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/research/TSF/HS810743/810743.html

McCartt, Anne T., Joann K. Wells, and Eric R. Teoh, “Attitudes Toward In-Vehicle Advanced Alcohol Detection Technology,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 11, No. 2, April 2010, pp. 156–164.

McGee, Hugh W., and Kimberly A. Eccles, Impact of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Crash Experience: A Synthesis of Highway Practice, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis 310, 2003. As of March 26, 2014:
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_310.pdf

McKnight, A. Scott, Derrik E. Watson, Robert B. Voas, and James C. Fell, Update of Vehicle Sanction Laws and Their Application, Vol. II: Vehicle Sanctions Status by State, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 028B, September 2008. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20Control/Articles/Associated%20Files/811028b.pdf

McLaughlin, Karen A., and Ann Glang, “The Effectiveness of a Bicycle Safety Program for Improving Safety-Related Knowledge and Behavior in Young Elementary Students,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 4, May 2010, pp. 343–353.

McLin, Dawn Bishop, “Lessons Learned: Community-Based Participation to Promote Primary Seat Belt Enforcement Legislation and Increase Teen Seat Belt Use,” Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, Vol. 32, No. 4, October–December 2009, pp. 285–288.

Meehan, William P., III, Lois K. Lee, Christopher M. Fischer, and Rebekah C. Mannix, “Bicycle Helmet Laws Are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle–Motor Vehicle Collisions,” Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 163, No, 3, September 2013, pp. 726–729.

Mertz, Kristen J., and Harold B. Weiss, “Changes in Motorcycle-Related Head Injury Deaths, Hospitalizations, and Hospital Charges Following Repeal of Pennsylvania’s Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet Law,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 98, No. 8, August 2008, pp. 1464–1467.

Meyer, Michael D. Meyer, Crashes vs. Congestion: What’s the Cost to Society? Heathrow, Fla.: AAA, 2008.

Michigan Compiled Laws Service, Chapter 257, Motor Vehicles, Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code, Chapter VI, Obedience to and Effect of Traffic Laws, Driving While Intoxicated, and Reckless Driving, Section 257.625, Operating Motor Vehicle While Intoxicated; “Operating While Intoxicated” Defined; Operating Motor Vehicle When Visibly Impaired; Penalties for Causing Death or Serious Impairment of a Body Function; Operation of Motor Vehicle by Person Less Than 21 Years of age; Requirements; Controlled Substances; Costs; Enhanced Sentence; Guilty Plea or Nolo Contendere; Establishment of Prior Conviction; Special Verdict; Public Record; Burden of Proving Religious Service or Ceremony; Ignition Interlock Device; Definitions; Prior Conviction; Violations Arising Out of Same Transaction, 2014.

Milano, Madalene, Bill McInturff, and James L. Nichols, “The Effect of Earned and Paid Media Strategies in High Visibility Enforcement Campaigns,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 35, 2004, pp. 203–214.

Miller, Louisa M., information specialist, Texas Department of Motor Vehicles, “TxDMV Internet E-Mail,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, February 2, 2011.

Miller, Sherri, South Dakota Motor Vehicles Division, “Information on Web Site Usage for MVD,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 23, 2010.

Miller, Ted R., “Costs and Functional Consequences of U.S. Roadway Crashes,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 25, No. 5, October 1993, pp. 593–607.

Miller, Ted R., and Lawrence J. Blincoe, “Incidence and Cost of Alcohol-Involved Crashes in the United States,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 26, No. 5, October 1994, pp. 583–591.

Miller, Ted R., Maury S. Galbraith, and Bruce A. Lawrence, “Costs and Benefits of a Community Sobriety Checkpoint Program,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 59, No. 4, July 1998, pp. 462–468.

Miller, Ted R., and David T. Levy, “Cost–Outcome Analysis in Injury Prevention and Control: Eighty-Four Recent Estimates for the United States,” Medical Care, Vol. 38, No. 6, June 2000, pp. 562–582.

Miller, Ted R., Eduard Zaloshnja, and Delia Hendrie, “Cost–Outcome Analysis of Booster Seats for Auto Occupants Aged 4 to 7 Years,” Pediatrics, Vol. 118, No. 5, November 2006, pp. 1994–1998.

Minnesota Department of Public Safety, Office of Traffic Safety, Driver’s License DWI Administrative Sanctions Initiative: Summary Report, March 1, 2011. As of March 26, 2014:
https://dps.mn.gov/divisions/ots/educational-materials/documents/dwi-adminstative-sanctions-report.pdf

Mississippi Code Annotated, Title 63, Motor Vehicles and Traffic Regulations, Chapter 11, Implied Consent Law, Section 63-11-30, Operation of Vehicle While Under Influence of Intoxicating Liquor or Other Substances Impairing Ability to Operate Vehicle or with Blood Alcohol Concentrations Above Specified Levels; Penalties; Separate Offense of Endangering Child by Driving Under Influence; Penalties; Expunction; Nonadjudication, 2014.

———, Title 63, Motor Vehicles and Traffic Regulations, Chapter 11, Implied Consent Law, Section 63-11-39, Reduction of Charges Under Chapter, 2014.

Montana Code Annotated, Title 46, Criminal Procedure, Chapter 16, Trial, Part 1, General Provisions, Section 46-16-130, Pretrial Diversion, 2013.

Montgomery County (Maryland) Department of Police, “Red Light Locations,” undated (a) ; referenced May 2, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.mymcpnews.com/divisions-2/field-services-bureau/traffic-division/ateu/red-light-locations/

———, “Speed Camera Revenue and Expenditure,” undated (b); referenced May 2, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.mymcpnews.com/divisions-2/field-services-bureau/traffic-division/ateu/speed-camera-revenue-expenditure/

Moon, Jae-Pil, and Joseph E. Hummer, “Speed Enforcement Cameras in Charlotte, North Carolina: Estimation of Longer-Term Safety Effects,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Issue 2182, 2010, pp. 31–39.

Morris, C. Craig, “Generalized Linear Regression Analysis of Association of Universal Helmet Laws with Motorcyclist Fatality Rates,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 38, No. 1, January 2006, pp. 142–147.

Morrisey, Michael A., and David C. Grabowski, “State Motor Vehicle Laws and Older Drivers,” Health Economics, Vol. 14, No. 4, April 2005, pp. 407–419.

Muller, Andreas, “Florida’s Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal and Fatality Rates,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 94, No. 4, April 2004, pp. 556–558.

National Campaign to Stop Red Light Running, Focus on Safety: A Practical Guide to Automated Traffic Enforcement, Washington, D.C., 2007.

National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, Automated Traffic Law Enforcement Model Law, Alexandria Va., 2004.

National Conference of State Legislatures, “Special License Plates for Drunk Driving Offenders,” updated February 2014a; referenced March 26, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.ncsl.org/issues-research/transport/special-plates-for-drunk-driving-offenders.aspx

———, “State Traffic Safety Legislation,” updated July 29, 2014b; referenced March 26, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/state-traffic-safety-legislation-database.aspx

National Hardcore Drunk Driver Project, Combating Hardcore Drunk Driving: A Sourcebook of Promising Strategies, Laws and Programs, Washington, D.C., 1998.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Click It or Ticket: Campaign History Fact Sheet,” Washington, D.C., undated (a); referenced March 30, 2012. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/communications/pdf/ciot-history.pdf

———, Enforcing Child Passenger Safety Laws: Eight Community Strategies, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 807 631, undated (b); referenced March 24, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/25000/25800/25880/DOT-HS-807-631.pdf

———, “Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS),” undated (c); referenced February 17, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/FARS

———, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, undated (d); referenced February 17, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/NASS

———, “Repeat DWI Offenders in the United States,” Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series, No. 85, February 1995. As of February 5, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/outreach/traftech/1995/TT085.htm

———, “Do Motorcycle Helmets Interfere with the Vision and Hearing of Riders?” Traffic Tech Technology Transfer Series, No. 127, June 1996. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Studies%20&%20Reports/Associated%20Files/tt127.pdf

———, Saturation Patrols and Sobriety Checkpoints: A How-To Guide for Planning and Publicizing Impaired Driving Enforcement Efforts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 809 063, revised October 2002. As of March 24, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/saturation_patrols/index.html

———, Digest of State Alcohol Highway Safety-Related Legislation, 21st ed., Washington, D.C., 2003a.

———, Traffic Safety Facts 2002: Motorcycles, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 809 609, c. 2003b. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/2002mcyfacts.pdf

———, The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Motorcycle Safety Program, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 809 539, January 2003c. As of March 24, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/motorcycle03/index.htm

———, National Survey of Speeding and Unsafe Driving Attitudes and Behavior: 2002, Vol. II: Findings, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 730, May 2004. As of September 10, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/research/speed_volII_finding/SpeedVolumeIIFindingsFinal.pdf

———, Low-Staffing Sobriety Checkpoints, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 590, April 2006a. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/enforce/LowStaffing_Checkpoints/images/LowStaffing.pdf

———, Office of Impaired Driving and Occupant Protection, personal communication, July 21, 2006b.

———,National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety: Implementation Guide, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 680, December 2006c. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/NAMS2006/index.html

———, Evaluation of the National Impaired Driving High-Visibility Enforcement Campaign: 2003–2005, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 789, July 2007.

———, “Administrative License Revocation,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 878, January 2008a. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Articles/Associated%20Files/810878.pdf

———, “Alcohol Exclusion Laws,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 885, January 2008b. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Articles/Associated%20Files/810885.pdf

———, “Bicycle Helmet Use Laws,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 886W, January 2008c. As of March 24, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/TSFLaws/PDFs/810886.pdf

———, “Blood Alcohol Concentration Test Refusal Laws,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 884W, January 2008d. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Articles/Associated%20Files/810884.pdf

———, “High BAC Laws,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 883, January 2008e. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Articles/Associated%20Files/810883.pdf

———, “Open Container Laws,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 882W, January 2008f. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Articles/Associated%20Files/810882.pdf

———, “Sobriety Checkpoints,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 881W, January 2008g. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Communication%20&%20Consumer%20Information/Articles/Associated%20Files/810881.pdf

———, “Vehicle and License Plate Sanctions,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 880, January 2008h.

———, Speed Enforcement Program Guidelines, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 810 915, March 2008i.

———, “Motorcycle Helmet Use in 2009: Overall Results,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 811 254, December 2009. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811254.PDF

———, “Determining Estimates of Lives and Costs Saved by Motorcycle Helmets,” Traffic Safety Facts, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 811 433, March 2011a. As of September 10, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811433.pdf

———, Digest of Impaired Driving and Selected Beverage Control Laws, 25th ed., Washington, D.C., DOT HS 811 456, April 2011b.

———, “Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines,” Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 230, November 29, 2013, pp. 71715–71724. As of July 12, 2015:
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/FR-2013-11-29/2013-28635

———, Traffic Safety Facts 2013: A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 812 139, 2015. As of July 31, 2015:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812139.pdf

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Motorcycle Safety Foundation, National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety, Washington, D.C., DOT HS 809 156, November 2000. As of March 24, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/00-NHT-212-motorcycle/index.html

National Transportation Safety Board, Actions to Reduce Fatalities, Injuries, and Crashes Involving the Hard Core Drinking Driver, Washington, D.C., NTSB/SR-00/01, adopted June 27, 2000. As of August 14, 2014:
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS109438

NCSL—See National Conference of State Legislatures.

NCUTLO—See National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances.

Nebraska Revised Statutes Annotated, Chapter 29, Criminal Procedure, Article 36, Pretrial Diversion, Section 29-3604, Driving While Intoxicated, Implied Consent Refusal; Not Eligible for Pretrial Diversion, 2013.

Neuman, Timothy R., Ronald Pfefer, Kevin L. Slack, Kelly K. Hardy, and Patricia Waller, Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Vol. 2: A Guide for Addressing Collisions Involving Unlicensed Drivers and Drivers with Suspended or Revoked Licenses, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500, 2003.

Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated, Title 43, Public Safety; Vehicles; Watercraft, Chapter 484C, Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol or a Prohibited Substance, General Provisions, Section 484C.030, “Concentration of Alcohol of 0.18 or More in His or Her Breath” Defined, 2014.

New Hampshire Revised Statutes Annotated, Title XXI, Motor Vehicles, Chapter 265-A, Alcohol or Drug Impairment, Driving or Operating Under the Influence of Drugs or Liquor, Section 265-A:21, Annulment; Plea Bargainin, 2014.

New Jersey Annotated Statutes, Title 39, Motor Vehicles and Traffic Regulation, Subtitle 1, Motor Vehicles Generally; Traffic Laws, Chapter 4, Motor Vehicle Traffic Regulation, Article 9, Operation of Motor Vehicles; Driving Under the Influence, etc., Section 39:4-50.12, Consultation with Prosecutor, 2014.

New Mexico Annotated Statutes, Chapter 66, Motor Vehicles, Article 8, Crimes, Penalties and Procedure, Part 2, Traffic Offenses, Section 66-8-102.1, Guilty Pleas; Limitations, 2013.

———, Chapter 66, Motor Vehicles, Article 8, Crimes, Penalties and Procedure, Part 2, Traffic Offenses, Section 66-8-110, Use of Tests in Criminal Actions or Civil Actions; Levels of Intoxication; Mandatory Charging, 2013.

New York Consolidated Law Service, Vehicle and Traffic Law, Title VII, Rules of the Road, Article 31, Alcohol and Drug-Related Offenses and Procedures Applicable Thereto, Section 1192, Operating a Motor Vehicle While Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs, 2014.

———, Title VII, Rules of the Road, Article 31, Alcohol and Drug-Related Offenses and Procedures Applicable Thereto, Section 1193, Sanctions.

Newman, Earl E., “Yellow Signal Timing: Lessons Learned from a Red Light Camera Program,” paper presented at Institute of Transportation Engineers 2010 Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Vancouver, B.C., 2010. As of August 14, 2014:
http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1082124

New Mexico Department of Transportation, Traffic Safety Bureau, and the Institute of Public Law, University of New Mexico School of Law, The High Cost of DWI in New Mexico 2007–2008, September 2008.

New York State Department of Motor Vehicles, Alcohol and Drug Driving Violations, 2012.

NHTSA—See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

NHTSA and Motorcycle Safety Foundation—See National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Motorcycle Safety Foundation.

Nichols, James L., A Review of Research-Based Findings and Recommendations for Programs to Increase Seat Belt Usage, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2002.

Nichols, James L., and Katherine A. Ledingham, The Impact of Legislation, Enforcement, and Sanctions on Safety Belt Use, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 601, 2008. As of July 31, 2015:
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_601.pdf

Nichols, James L., Katherine A. Ledingham, and David F. Preusser, Effectiveness of the May 2005 Rural Demonstration Program and the Click It or Ticket Mobilization in the Great Lakes Region: First Year Results, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 753, April 2007. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/buckleup/CIOT2005_effectiveness/

Nichols, James L., and M. S. Solomon, Click It or Ticket Evaluation, 2011, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 779, May 2013. As of July 12, 2015:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811779.pdf

Nichols, James L., A. Scott Tippetts, James C. Fell, Amy Auld-Owens, Connie H. Wiliszowski, Philip W. Haseltine, and Angela Eichelberger, Strategies to Increase Seat Belt Use: An Analysis of Levels of Fines and the Type of Law, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 413, November 2010. As of July 12, 2015:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/occupant_protection/pdf/811413.pdf

Nielsen Company, “Top 10s and Trends, Week of December 17, 2012,” Nielsen.com, 2012.

North Carolina Department of Transportation, “Bicycle Helmet Initiative,” undated; referenced March 14, 2014. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.ncdot.gov/bikeped/safetyeducation/helmet_initiative/

North Carolina General Statutes, Chapter 20, Motor Vehicles, Article 3, Motor Vehicle Act of 1937, Part 10, Operation of Vehicles and Rules of the Road, Section 20-138.4, Requirement That Prosecutor Explain Reduction or Dismissal of Charge in Implied-Consent Case, 2014.

North Carolina Governor’s Highway Safety Program, Booze It and Loose It, Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina Department of Transportation, undated.

NTSB—See National Transportation Safety Board.

Nunn, Samuel, and William Newby, “The Geography of Deterrence: Exploring the Small Area Effects of Sobriety Checkpoints on Alcohol-Impaired Collision Rates Within a City,” Evaluation Review, Vol. 35, No. 4, August 2011, pp. 354–378.

NuStats, Qualitative Study of Costs Associated with Drunk Driving in Texas, Austin, Texas: Texas Department of Transportation, June 2006.

Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, “Program Profile: Checkpoint Tennessee,” undated; referenced June 13, 2013. As of August 14, 2014:
https://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetails.aspx?ID=136

Office of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Driver Education and Evaluation Programs, DEEP: Maine’s Driver Education and Evaluation Program for OUI Offenders, Augusta, Maine: State of Maine, January 2014.

Office of the Illinois Secretary of State, DUI Fact Book, Springfield, Ill.: Office of the Illinois Secretary of State, Department of Driver’s Services, February 2013.

Office of the Independent Budget Analyst, Red Light Photo Enforcement, San Diego, Calif., 2007.

Officer, Kelly, research analyst, Oregon Criminal Justice Commission, email to author, June 17, 2013.

O’Keeffe, Terence, Steve R. Dearwater, Larry M. Gentilello, Todd M. Cohen, James D. Wilkinson, and Mark M. McKenney, “Increased Fatalities After Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal: Is It All Because of Lack of Helmets?” Journal of Trauma, Vol. 63, No. 5, November 2007, pp. 1006–1009.

Orange County (California) Grand Jury, Red-Light Cameras: Automated Traffic Cops in Orange County, 2004. As of December 19, 2012:
http://www.ocgrandjury.org/pdfs/redlight.pdf

Oregon Revised Statutes, Title 59, Oregon Vehicle Code, Chapter 813, Driving Under the Influence of Intoxicants, Plea Agreement, Section 813.170, Plea Agreement Prohibited, 2013.

PAS Systems International Alcohol Sensor Systems, “PAS IV Passive Alcohol Sensor: The Sniffer LE,” undated; referenced June 13, 2013. As of August 14, 2014:
http://pasintl.com/pas-iv-passive-alcohol-sensor-the-sniffer-le.html

PB Farradyne, City of San Diego Photo Enforcement System Review: Final Report, San Diego, Calif.: City of San Diego Police Department, January 14, 2002.

Peden, Margie, Richard Scurfield, David Sleet, Dinesh Mohan, Adnan A. Hyder, Eva Jarawan, and Colin Mathers, eds., World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2004. As of August 14, 2014:
http://site.ebrary.com/id/10053723

Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, Title 75, Vehicles, Part III, Operation of Vehicles, Chapter 38, Driving After Imbibing Alcohol or Utilizing Drugs, Section 3812, Preliminary Hearing or Arraignment, 2014.

People v. Arauz, 5 Cal. App. 4th 663, April 15, 1992.

Philbrook, Julie K., and Nancy A. Franke-Wilson, “The Effectiveness of a Peer Lead Smart Driving Campaign on High School Students’ Driving Habits,” Journal of Trauma, Vol. 67, No. 1, Suppl., July 2009, pp. S67–S69.

Pilkington, Paul, and Sanjay Kinra, “Effectiveness of Speed Cameras in Preventing Road Traffic Collisions and Related Casualties: Systematic Review,” BMJ, Vol. 330, 2005, pp. 331–334.

Plimack, Marcy, data manager, Office of Grants, Policy and Statistics, Maryland Department of Public Safety and Correctional Services, email to author, June 14, 2013.

Potts, Carlie, Omaha Police Department, email to author, July 12, 2013.

Potts, Ingrid, Stephen Garets, Terry Smith, Ronald Pfefer, Timothy R. Neuman, Kevin L. Slack, Kelly K. Hardy, and James L. Nichols, Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Vol. 22: A Guide for Addressing Collisions Involving Motorcycles, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500, 2008.

Potts, Ingrid, Jane Stutts, Ronald Pfefer, Timothy R. Neuman, Kevin L. Slack, and Kelly K. Hardy, Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Vol. 9: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Older Drivers, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500, 2004. As of July 31, 2015:
http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_500v9.pdf

Preusser, David F., James H. Hedlund, and Robert G. Ulmer, Evaluation of Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal in Arkansas and Texas, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 131, September 2000. As of August 14, 2014:
http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/25000/25900/25965/DOT-HS-809-131.pdf

Preusser, David F., Allan F. Williams, James L. Nichols, Julie Tison, and Neil K. Chaudhary, Effectiveness of Behavioral Highway Safety Countermeasures, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 622, 2008.

Rauch, William J., Eileen M. Ahlin, Paul L. Zador, Jan M. Howard, and G. Doug Duncan, “Effects of Administrative Ignition Interlock License Restrictions on Drivers with Multiple Alcohol Offenses,” Journal of Experimental Criminology, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 2011, pp. 127–148.

Reinfurt, Donald W., “Documenting the Sustainability of a Mature Click It or Ticket Program: The North Carolina Experience,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 35, 2004, pp. 181–188.

Research and Innovative Technology Administration, State Transportation Statistics 2010, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, c. 2011. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/publications/state_transportation_statistics/state_transportation_statistics_2010/index.html

Retting, Richard A., “Two Decades of Photo Enforcement in the United States: A Brief Summary of Experience and Lessons Learned,” ITE Journal, Vol. 80, No. 11, November 2010, pp. 20–24, 29.

Retting, Richard A., Charles M. Farmer, and Anne T. McCartt, “Evaluation of Automated Speed Enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 9, No. 5, October 2008, pp. 440–445.

Retting, Richard A., Susan A. Ferguson, and A. Shalom Hakkert, “Effects of Red Light Cameras on Violations and Crashes: A Review of the International Literature,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2003, pp. 17–23.

Retting, Richard A., and Sergey Y. Kyrychenko, “Reductions in Injury Crashes Associated with Red Light Camera Enforcement in Oxnard, California,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 92, No. 11, November 2002, pp. 1822–1825.

Retting, Richard A., Sergey Y. Kyrychenko, and Anne T. McCartt, “Evaluation of Automated Speed Enforcement on Loop 101 Freeway in Scottsdale, Arizona,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 40, No. 4, July 2008, pp. 1506–1512.

Rivara, Frederick P., Diane C. Thompson, Matthew Q. Patterson, and Robert S. Thompson, “Prevention of Bicycle-Related Injuries: Helmets, Education, and Legislation,” Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 19, 1998, pp. 293–318.

Robertson, Robyn D., Erin Holmes, and Ward Vanlaar, eds., Alcohol Interlocks: Taking Research to Practice—Proceedings of the 10th International Alcohol Interlock Symposium, Ottawa, Ont.: Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 2010. As of August 14, 2014:
http://tirf.ca/publications/publications_show.php?pub_id=252

Robertson, Robyn D., and Herb M. Simpson, DWI System Improvements for Dealing with Hard Core Drinking Drivers: Prosecution, Ottawa, Ont.: Traffic Injury Research Foundation, June 2002. As of March 26, 2014:
http://www.tirf.ca/publications/PDF_publications/Prosecution_Report.pdf

Robertson, Robyn D., Ward G. M. Vanlaar, and Douglas J. Beirness, Alcohol Interlock Programs: A Global Perspective—Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programs, Ottawa, Ont.: Traffic Injury Research Foundation, c. 2006. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.tirf.ca/publications/PDF_publications/Summary_of_Papers_from_6th_Interlock_Symposium.pdf

Rodgers, Alan, “Effects of Minnesota’s License Plate Impoundment Law on Recidivism of Multiple DWI Violators,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1995, pp. 125–126.

Rodgers, George B., “Effects of State Helmet Laws on Bicycle Helmet Use by Children and Adolescents,” Injury Prevention, Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 42–46.

Rosenthal, Kristin, program manager, U.S. Pedestrian and Bike Safety, Safe Kids Worldwide, interview with Liisa Ecola and Ria Laureijs, July 11, 2013.

Ross, H. Laurence, Steven Simon, and James Cleary, “License Plate Confiscation for Persistent Alcohol Impaired Drivers,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 28, No. 1, January 1996, pp. 53–61.

Roth, Richard, “Ignition Interlocks and Drunk Driving,” presentation at National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/Mothers Against Drunk Driving Ignition Interlock Institute, Seattle, Wash., 2010.

Roth, Richard, Paul R. Marques, and Robert B. Voas, “A Note on the Effectiveness of the House-Arrest Alternative for Motivating DWI Offenders to Install Ignition Interlocks,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2009, pp. 437–441.

Safer New Mexico Now, 2012 Annual Report, Santa Fe, N.M., 2013.

Saltzman, Jonathan, “A Judicial Haven for Accused Drunk Drivers,” Boston Globe, November 6, 2011. As of August 13, 2014:
http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2011/11/05/judicial-haven-for-accused-drunk-drivers/XDVAfQU5gg5RrsGUyGKBRN/story.html

Sampaio, Breno, “On the Identification of the Effect of Prohibiting Hand-Held Cell Phone Use While Driving: Comment,” Transportation Research, Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 44, No. 9, November 2010, pp. 766–770.

Sass, Tim R., and Paul R. Zimmerman, “Motorcycle Helmet Laws and Motorcyclist Fatalities,” Journal of Regulatory Economics, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2000, pp. 195–215.

Savage, Melissa A., Anne Teigen, and Nicholas Farber, Traffic Safety and Public Health: State Legislative Action 2008, Transportation Series 33, Denver, Colo.: National Conference of State Legislatures, April 2009. As of March 26, 2014:
http://www.ncsl.org/documents/transportation/08trafficsafety.pdf

Scottsdale (Arizona) City Council, Photo Enforcement Contract Extension, Scottsdale, Ariz.: City Council, 2011.

Seyydin, Sara, “Sobriety Checkpoints Have High Cost, but High Reward, Officers Say,” Auburn Journal, February 24, 2012.

Sharp, Elaine B., and Paul E. Johnson, “Taking the Keys from Grandpa,” Review of Policy Research, Vol. 22, No. 2, March 2005, pp. 187–204.

Shin, Kangwon, Simon P. Washington, and Ida van Schalkwyk, “Evaluation of the Scottsdale Loop 101 Automated Speed Enforcement Demonstration Program,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 41, No. 3, May 2009, pp. 393–403.

Shults, Ruth A., James L. Nichols, Tho Bella Dinh-Zarr, David A. Sleet, and Randy W. Elder, “Effectiveness of Primary Enforcement Safety Belt Laws and Enhanced Enforcement of Safety Belt Laws: A Summary of the Guide to Community Preventive Services Systematic Reviews,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2004, pp. 189–196.

Sivinski, Robert, Crash Prevention Effectiveness Prevention of Light-Vehicle Electronic Stability Control: An Update of the 2007 NHTSA Evaluation, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 486, June 2011. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811486.pdf

Sleet, David A., Michael F. Ballesteros, and Nagesh N. Borse, “A Review of Unintentional Injuries in Adolescents,” Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 31, 2010, pp. 195–212.

Smith, Chris, “Have We Found the Ceiling for Super Bowl Ad Costs?” Forbes, January 29, 2014. As of June 2, 2014:
http://www.forbes.com/sites/chrissmith/2014/01/29/have-we-found-the-ceiling-for-super-bowl-ad-costs/

Smith, Nyasha, “Proposed Multiyear Contract with Redflex Traffic System (CA 19-428),” presentation to members of the Council of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C., September 19, 2012. As of August 14, 2014:
http://dcclims1.dccouncil.us/images/00001/20120921171223.pdf

Snyder, Kristen M., and Linda Ganzini, “Outcomes of Oregon’s Law Mandating Physician Reporting of Impaired Drivers,” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2009, pp. 161–165.

Soderstrom, Carl A., Mary Anne Scottino, Cynthia A. Burch, Shiu M. Ho, Timothy J. Kerns, and John J. Joyce, “Pursuit of Licensure by Senior Drivers Referred by Police to a State Licensing Agency’s Medical Advisory Board,” Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine, Vol. 54, 2010, pp. 351–358.

Soderstrom, Carl A., Mary Anne Scottino, John J. Joyce, Cynthia A. Burch, Shiu M. Ho, and Timothy J. Kerns, “Police Referral of Drivers to the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration’s Medical Advisory Board,” Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine, Vol. 53, October 2009, pp. 105–116.

Solomon, Mark G., Robert H. B. Chaffe, and Linda A. Cosgrove, May 2004 “Click It or Ticket” Seat Belt Mobilization Evaluation, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 716, 2007.

Solomon, Mark G., Neil K. Chaudhary, and Linda A. Cosgrove, May 2003 Click It or Ticket Safety Belt Mobilization Evaluation, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 694, March 2004. As of August 14, 2014:
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS53377

Solomon, Mark G., Richard P. Compton, and David F. Preusser, “Taking the Click It or Ticket Model Nationwide,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2004, pp. 197–201.

Solomon, Mark G., Stephanie H. Gilbert, James L. Nichols, Robert H. B. Chaffe, Julie Tison, and Neil K. Chaudhary, Evaluation of the May 2005 Click It or Ticket Mobilization to Increase Seat Belt Use, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 778, May 2007. As of August 14, 2014:
http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/repository/ntlc/nhtsa/record26646.shtm

Solomon, Mark G., James H. Hedlund, Emily R. Haire, Robert H. B. Chaffe, and Linda A. Cosgrove, The 2006 National Labor Day Impaired Driving Crackdown: Drunk Driving, Over the Limit, Under Arrest, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 039, September 2008.

Solomon, Mark G., David F. Preusser, Julie Tison, and Neil K. Chaudhary, Evaluation of the May 2007 Click It or Ticket Mobilization, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 239, December 2009. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811239.pdf

Solomon, Mark G., Robert G. Ulmer, and David F. Preusser, Evaluation of Click It or Ticket Model Programs, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 498, September 2002.

South Dakota Codified Laws, Title 32, Motor Vehicles, Chapter 32-23, Driving Under the Influence, Section 32-23-1.3, Restrictions on Reduction or Dismissal of Charge Under Section 32-23-1, 2014.

“Speed Camera Repeal Effort an Easy Sell,” Washington Times, May 10, 2009. As of December 9, 2011:
http://blogs.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/may/10/camera-repeal-effort-an-easy-sell/

Sprattler, Karen, Ignition Interlocks: What You Need to Know—A Toolkit for Policymakers, Highway Safety Professionals, and Advocates, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, November 2009. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/impaired_driving/pdf/811246.pdf

Staplin, Loren, and Kathy H. Lococo, Model Driver Screening and Evaluation Program, Vol. 3: Guidelines for Motor Vehicle Administrators, Washington, D.C.: Office of Research and Traffic Records, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 581, May 2003. As of July 31, 2015:
http://stnw.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/olddrive/modeldriver/vol3scr.pdf

State of Texas Legislative Budget Board, Criminal Justice Uniform Cost Report: Fiscal Years 2010–2012, January 2013.

Stuster, Jack W., “Increasing the Opportunity to Examine Impaired Drivers,” in James H. Hedlund, ed., Issues and Methods in the Detection of Alcohol and Other Drugs, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, Circular E-C020, December 2000, pp. D10–D14.

Stuster, Jack W., and Paul A. Blowers, Experimental Evaluation of Sobriety Checkpoint Programs, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 808 287, June 1995.

Stutts, Jane, Ronald R. Knipling, Ronald Pfefer, Timothy R. Neuman, Kevin L. Slack, and Kelly K. Hardy, Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Vol. 14: A Guide for Reducing Crashes Involving Drowsy and Distracted Drivers, Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 500, 2005.

Sudweeks, Allen, research analyst, Division of Motor Vehicles, Utah State Tax Commission, “Information on Web Site Usage for DMV,” email to Andrew Martin, research associate, intelligent transportation systems, Kentucky Transportation Center, December 28, 2010.

Sun, Kainan, Michael J. Bauer, and Susan Hardman, “Effects of Upgraded Child Restraint Law Designed to Increase Booster Seat Use in New York,” Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 3, September 2010, pp. 484–489.

Surla, L. T., and S. M. Koons, An Evaluation of the Elimination of Plea Bargaining for DWI Offenders, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 807 435, January 1989.

Syner, Joey, Belinda Jackson, Lori Dankers, Bill Naff, Stephanie Hancock, and John Siegler, Strategic Evaluation States Initiative: Case Studies of Alaska, Georgia, and West Virginia, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 923, April 2008. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20Control/Articles/Associated%20Files/810923.pdf

Tefft, Brian C., Driver License Renewal Policies and Fatal Crash Involvement Rates of Older Drivers, United States, 1985–2011, Washington, D.C.: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, July 2014. As of July 12, 2015:
https://www.aaafoundation.org/sites/default/files/OlderDriverLicenseRenewal-FINALFTSFORMAT.pdf

Teigen, Anne, and Douglas Shinkle, Traffic Safety Trends: State Legislative Action 2013, Washington, D.C.: National Conference of State Legislatures, February 26, 2014. As of July 31, 2015:
http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/traffic-safety-trends-state-legislative-action-2013.aspx

Tennessee Board of Probation and Parole, Annual Report, FY 2011–2012, Nashville, Tenn.: State of Tennessee, September 2012.

Tennessee Code Annotated, Title 55, Motor and Other Vehicles, Chapter 10, Accidents, Arrests, Crimes and Penalties, Part 4, Alcohol and Drug Related Offenses, Section 55-10-403, Fines for Violations of Section 55-10-401; Restitution, 2014.

Tessier, Karen, “Effectiveness of Hands-On Education for Correct Child Restraint Use by Parents,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 42, No. 4, July 2010, pp. 1041–1047.

“Texas DWI Penalties, Fines and Sentencing,” FreeAdvice, undated; referenced May 2, 2014. As of August 13, 2014:
http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/drunk_driving/texas-dui.htm

Thomas, Andrea M., Lawrence J. Cook, and Lenora M. Olson, “Evaluation of the Click It or Ticket Intervention in Utah,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 43, No. 1, January 2011, pp. 272–275.

Thomas, Libby J., Raghavan Srinivasan, Lawrence E. Decina, and Loren Staplin, “Safety Effects of Automated Speed Enforcement Programs: Critical Review of International Literature,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2078, 2008, pp. 117–126. As of August 14, 2014:
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/speedmgt/ref_mats/fhwasa09028/47.htm

Thompson, Diane C., Frederick P. Rivara, and Robert Thompson, “Helmets for Preventing Head and Facial Injuries in Bicyclists,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4, 1999.

TIRF—See Traffic Injury Research Foundation.

Tison, Julie, Mark G. Solomon, James L. Nichols, Stephanie H. Gilbert, John N. Siegler, and Linda A. Cosgrove, May 2006 Click It or Ticket Seat Belt Mobilization Evaluation: Final Report, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 979, June 2008.

Tison, Julie, and Allan F. Williams, Analyzing the First Years of the Click It or Ticket Mobilizations, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 232, January 2010. As of March 26, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811232.pdf

Traffic Injury Research Foundation, Alcohol Interlock Curriculum for Practitioners, Ottawa, Ont., undated. As of August 14, 2014:
http://aic.tirf.ca/section1/index.php

Traynor, Thomas L., “The Impact of State Level Behavioral Regulations on Traffic Fatality Rates,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, December 2009, pp. 421–426.

Ulmer, Robert G., and Veronika Shabanova Northrup, Evaluation of the Repeal of the All-Rider Motorcycle Helmet Law in Florida, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 849, August 2005.

Ulmer, Robert G., and David F. Preusser, Evaluation of the Repeal of Motorcycle Helmet Laws in Kentucky and Louisiana, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 809 530, October 2003. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/PEOPLE/injury/pedbimot/motorcycle/kentuky-la03/index.html

UNC Highway Safety Research Center—See University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center.

University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Countermeasures That Work: A Highway Safety Countermeasure Guide for State Highway Safety Offices, 6th ed., Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 444, February 2011. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811444.pdf

U.S. Census Bureau, “Local Governments and Public School Systems by Type and State: 2007,” last revised October 26, 2012. As of April 14, 2014:
http://www.census.gov/govs/cog/GovOrgTab03ss.html

U.S. General Accounting Office, Highway Safety: Motorcycle Helmet Laws Save Lives and Reduce Costs to Society—Report to Congressional Requesters, Washington, D.C., RCED-91-170, July 1991.

Utah Code Annotated, Title 41, Motor Vehicles, Chapter 6a, Traffic Code, Part 5, Driving Under the Influence and Reckless Driving, Section 41-6a-513, Acceptance of Plea of Guilty to DUI; Restrictions; Verification of Prior Violations; Prosecutor to Examine Defendant’s Record, 2014.

Vaa, Truls, Terje Assum, Pål Ulleberg, and Knut Veisten, Effects of Information Campaigns on Behaviour and Road Accidents: Conditions, Evaluation and Cost-Effectiveness, Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre for Transport Research, 2004. As of August 14, 2014:
https://www.toi.no/publications/effects-of-information-campaigns-on-behaviour-and-road-accidents-conditions-evaluation-and-cost-effectiveness-article17826-29.html

Vasudevan, Vinod, Shashi S. Nambisan, Ashok K. Singh, and Traci Pearl, “Effectiveness of Media and Enforcement Campaigns in Increasing Seat Belt Usage Rates in a State with a Secondary Seat Belt Law,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 10, No. 4, August 2009, pp. 330–339.

Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles, “DMV Saved $4.7M in 2011 While Simultaneously Improving Service,” press release, January 18, 2012.

Virginia DMV—See Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles.

Voas, Robert B., “A New Look at NHTSA’s Evaluation of the 1984 Charlottesville Sobriety Checkpoint Program: Implications for Current Checkpoint Issues,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 2008, pp. 22–30.

Voas, Robert B., and David J. DeYoung, “Vehicle Action: Effective Policy for Controlling Drunk and Other High-Risk Drivers?” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 34, No. 3, May 2002, pp. 263–270.

Voas, Robert B., James C. Fell, A. Scott McKnight, and Barry M. Sweedler, “Controlling Impaired Driving Through Vehicle Programs: An Overview,” Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 5, No. 3, September 2004, pp. 292–298.

Voas, Robert B., A. Scott Tippetts, Deborah Fisher, and Milton Grosz, “Requiring Suspended Drunk Drivers to Install Alcohol Interlocks to Reinstate Their Licenses: Effective?” Addiction, Vol. 105, No. 8, August 2010, pp. 1422–1428.

Voas, Robert B., A. Scott Tippetts, and Eileen Taylor, “Temporary Vehicle Immobilization: Evaluation of a Program in Ohio,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 29, No. 5, September 1997, pp. 635–642.

———, “Temporary Vehicle Impoundment in Ohio: A Replication and Confirmation,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 30, No. 5, September 1998, pp. 651–655.

Wagenaar, Alexander C., T. S. Zobeck, G. D. Williams, and R. Hingson, Effects of DWI Control Efforts: A Systematic Review of the Literature from 1960–1991, Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, 2000.

Wahl, Georgia M., Tareq Islam, Bridget Gardner, Alan B. Marr, John P. Hunt, Norman E. McSwain, Christopher C. Baker, and Juan Duchesne, “Red Light Cameras: Do They Change Driver Behavior and Reduce Accidents?” Journal of Trauma, Vol. 68, No. 3, March 2010, pp. 515–518.

Walden, Melissa, and Troy Walden, “Sobriety Checkpoints,” College Station, Texas: Center for Transportation Safety and Texas Transportation Institute, 2011. As of June 12, 2013:
http://tti.tamu.edu/group/stsc/files/2010/11/Sobriety-Checkpoints-3-11-2011.pdf

Waller, Mark S., Shannon M. Carey, Erin J. Farley, and Michael Rempel, Testing the Cost Savings of Judicial Diversion, New York: Center for Court Innovation, March 2013. As of April 28, 2014:
http://www.courtinnovation.org/research/testing-cost-savings-judicial-diversion

Weiss, Harold, Yll Agimi, and Claudia Steiner, “Youth Motorcycle-Related Brain Injury by State Helmet Law Type: United States, 2005–2007,” Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1149–1155.

Wesson, David E., Derek Stephens, Kelvin Lam, Daria Parsons, Laura Spence, and Patricia C. Parkin, “Trends in Pediatric and Adult Bicycling Deaths Before and After Passage of a Bicycle Helmet Law,” Pediatrics, Vol. 122, No. 3, September 1, 2008, pp. 605–610.

WHO—See World Health Organization.

Wiliszowski, Connie, James Fell, Scott McKnight, and Scott Tippetts, An Evaluation of Intensive Supervision Programs for Serious DWI Offenders, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 811 446, March 2011. As of August 14, 2014:
http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/nti/pdf/811446.pdf

Williams, Allan F., and JoAnn K. Wells, “The Role of Enforcement Programs Increasing Seat Belt Use,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2004, pp. 175–180.

Willis, Charlene, Sean Lybrand, and Nicholas Bellamy, “Alcohol Ignition Interlock Programmes for Reducing Drink Driving Recidivism,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3, October 18, 2004, p. CD004168.

Wilson, Cecilia, Charlene Willis, Joan K. Hendrikz, and Nicholas Bellamy, “Speed Enforcement Detection Devices for Preventing Road Traffic Injuries,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2, April 19, 2006, p. CD004607.

Wilson, Cecilia, Charlene Willis, Joan K. Hendrikz, Robyne Le Brocque, and Nicholas Bellamy, “Speed Cameras for the Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries and Deaths,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10, October 6, 2010, p. CD004607.

Wilson, Kevin A., “What to Do About Elderly Drivers,” AutoWeek, Vol. 57, No. 14, April 2, 2007, p. 20.

Winston, Flaura K., Harold B. Weiss, Michael L. Nance, Cara Vivarelli-O’Neill, Stephen Strotmeyer, Bruce A. Lawrence, and Ted R. Miller, “Estimates of the Incidence and Costs Associated with Handlebar-Related Injuries in Children,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 156, No. 9, September 2002, pp. 922–928.

Wisconsin Statutes, Criminal Procedure, Chapter 967, Criminal Procedure; General Provisions, Section 967.055, Prosecution of Offenses; Operation of a Motor Vehicle or Motorboat; Alcohol, Intoxicant or Drug, 2014.

Withrow, Jay, “Motorcycle-Helmet Enforcement Ends,” Omaha World-Herald, September 27, 2012.

Word, Ron, “Red Flags for Red-Light Cameras,” Folio Weekly, September 11, 2012.

World Health Organization, Strengthening Road Safety Legislation: A Practice and Resource Manual for Countries, Geneva, 2013.

Wyoming Statutes Annotated, Title 31, Motor Vehicles, Chapter 5, Regulation of Traffic on Highways, Article 2, Operation of Vehicles Generally, Section 31-5-233, Driving or Having Control of Vehicle While Under the Influence of Intoxicating Liquor or Controlled Substances; Penalties, 2014.

Zador, Paul L., Eileen M. Ahlin, William J. Rauch, Jan M. Howard, and G. Doug Duncan, “The Effects of Closer Monitoring on Driver Compliance with Interlock Restrictions,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 43, No. 6, November 2011, pp. 1960–1967.

Zaloshnja, Eduard, and Ted R. Miller, “The Employer Costs of Motor Vehicle Crashes,” International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, Vol. 13, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 145–150.

———, “The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats,” Annual Proceedings/Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Vol. 51, 2007, pp. 197–206.

Zaloshnja, Eduard, Ted R. Miller, Forrest Council, and Bhagwant Persaud, “Comprehensive and Human Capital Costs by Maximum Police-Reported Injury Severity Within Selected Crash Types,” Annual Proceedings/Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Vol. 48, 2004, pp. 251–263.

Zaloshnja, Eduard, Ted R. Miller, Delia Hendrie, and Deborah Galvin, “Employer Costs of Alcohol-Involved Injuries,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 2, February 2007, pp. 136–142.

Zaloshnja, Eduard, Ted R. Miller, Eduardo Romano, and Rebecca Spicer, “Crash Costs by Body Part Injured, Fracture Involvement, and Threat-to-Life Severity, United States, 2000,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 36, No. 3, May 2004, pp. 415–427.

Zaza, Stephanie, David A. Sleet, Robert S. Thompson, Daniel M. Sosin, Julie C. Bolen, and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services, “Reviews of Evidence Regarding Interventions to Increase Use of Child Safety Seats,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 4S, 2001, pp. 31–47.

Zhang, Sheldon, A Descriptive Analysis of California DUI Programs: Final Report, Sacramento, Calif.: California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs Driving-Under-the-Influence Program Branch, September 2012. As of August 14, 2014:
http://wwwtest.adp.ca.gov/Criminal_Justice/DUI/pdf/DUI_Descriptive_Study_Final_Report_10-8-12.pdf

Zwicker, T. J., Neil K. Chaudhary, S. Maloney, and R. Squeglia, Connecticut’s 2003 Impaired-Driving High-Visibility Enforcement Campaign, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 689, February 2007.

Zwicker, T. J., Neil K. Chaudhary, Mark G. Solomon, John N. Siegler, and J. D. Meadows, West Virginia’s Impaired Driving High Visibility Enforcement Campaign, Washington, D.C.: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT HS 810 792, August 2007.