MMWR News Synopsis

Friday, October 7, 2022


Surveillance Summaries: Surveillance for Sickle Cell Disease — Sickle Cell Data Collection Program, Two States, 2004–2018

CDC Media Relations

This report reviews CDC’s and participating states’ efforts to establish, maintain, and expand a sickle cell disease (SCD) surveillance program. As Sickle Cell Data Collection (SCDC) expands to additional states, findings can be used by researchers, health care providers, and policymakers to improve the quality of care for people living with SCD in the United States.

CDC and select states have successfully established, maintained, and expanded SCD surveillance through the SCDC program to better understand how many people live in these states with SCD and their health care needs. Even though SCD is the most common inherited blood disorder in the United States, the exact number of people living with SCD is unknown. Recent data indicate that in 2018, more than 9,000 people with SCD were living in Georgia and more than 6,000 were living in California. These estimates are higher than previously published estimates for each state derived from U.S. Census data, state newborn screening program data, and life expectancy estimates. Moreover, SCDC data from California and Georgia have played an important role in addressing the health care needs of people living with SCD in these states. For example, geographic assessments in both Georgia and California informed decision-making on the need for additional community resources and SCD specialty care clinics. As additional funding becomes available, SCDC will expand to new states and allow comprehensive surveillance of those living with SCD because every state has a unique demographic makeup and distinct health care policies, medical and research centers, and access to care.

Respiratory Virus Surveillance Among Children with Acute Respiratory Illnesses, New Vaccine Surveillance Network — United States, 2016–2021

CDC Media Relations

A new study published by CDC shows respiratory illness trends in children have changed since the pandemic began. Continued monitoring of these trends informs the strategies that help protect children against respiratory viruses.

A 5-year (2016-2021) trend analysis from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) reviewed cases of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) among 51,000 children in seven states and found changes in historical trends throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. Rhinovirus, enterovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were the viruses detected most often. During April 2020–May 2021, after the emergence of COVID-19, fewer children were reported sick from respiratory viruses. During summer 2021, NVSN data found a higher number of children hospitalized with ARI compared to previous seasons. Continued monitoring and further analysis of respiratory virus data will provide a better understanding of risk factors and health disparities for severe respiratory disease in children. In addition, monitoring these trends will inform the development of vaccines and treatments to protect children from COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses. The best protection right now is to take steps to prevent getting an ARI or spreading it to others, including washing your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, avoiding touching eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands, avoiding close contact with others who are sick, cleaning and disinfecting often, and vaccination.

Preliminary Incidence and Trends of Infections Caused by Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2016–2021

CDC Media Relations

Comprehensive efforts are needed to improve food safety and meet the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2030 goals, particularly for Campylobacter and Salmonella.

Rates of enteric (intestinal) infections monitored by FoodNet decreased 8% overall in 2021 compared with the average during 2016–2018. As in 2020, factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in laboratory testing practices likely influenced exposure to and detection of enteric infections. Infection rates decreased for infections caused by Salmonella; did not change for infections caused by Campylobacter, Listeria, Shigella, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC); and increased for infections caused by Cyclospora, Vibrio, and Yersinia. Despite the overall decreases in infections during 2020 and 2021, continued efforts are needed to prevent foodborne infections and meet national goals, particularly for Campylobacter and Salmonella. This includes addressing the root causes of foodborne illness, including contamination on farms and in slaughter and processing facilities.

Previously Released:  Increase in Acute Respiratory Illnesses Among Children and Adolescents Associated with Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses, Including Enterovirus D68 — United States, July–September 2022

CDC Media Relations

Previously Released: Monkeypox Case Investigation–Cook County Jail, Chicago, Illinois, July–August, 2022

CDC Media Relations

Previously Released: Incidence of Monkeypox Among Unvaccinated Persons Compared with Persons Receiving ≥1 JYNNEOS Vaccine Dose — 32 U.S. Jurisdictions, July 31–September 3, 2022

CDC Media Relations

Notes from the Field
  • E-cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2022
    In 2022, 2.55 million U.S. middle and high school students (14.1% of high school students and 3.3% of middle school students) reported using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days (current use). Nearly 85% of those youth reported using flavored e-cigarettes and more than half reported using disposable e-cigarettes.
    This study used data from the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to assess e-cigarette use behaviors among U.S. youth. Among the 2.55 million youth who currently used e-cigarettes, more than 4 in 10 reported e-cigarette use on 20 or more of the past 30 days and more than one in four reported daily use. Additionally, 14.5% reported their usual brand was Puff Bar, followed by Vuse (12.5%), Hyde (5.5%), and SMOK (4.0%); more than one fifth (21.8%) reported their usual brand was a brand other than the 13 listed in the survey. Youth use of tobacco products in any form including e-cigarettes is unsafe. Such products contain nicotine, which is highly addictive and can harm the developing adolescent brain. Sustained implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies at the national, state, and local levels, coupled with FDA regulation and enforcement, is critical to addressing e-cigarette use among youth.
  • Increases in Firearm Homicide and Suicide Rates — United States, 2020-2021
    The overall U.S. firearm homicide and suicide rates in 2021 were the highest documented since 1993 and 1990, respectively. Some racial and ethnic groups experienced substantially higher rates in 2021, and among some groups, disparities continued to widen.
    The firearm homicide rate in the United States increased nearly 35% during 2019–2020, coinciding with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. This increase affected all ages and most population groups, but not equally: existing disparities, including racial and ethnic disparities, widened. To assess potential increases in firearm homicide and suicide deaths from 2020 to 2021, CDC researchers compared 2020 and 2021 National Vital Statistics System mortality data. Firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates both increased by 8%. Firearm homicide rates were highest among adults aged 25-44 years, with increases in all racial and ethnic groups in that age group. Black people continued to experience the highest rates of firearm homicide in every age group. Firearm suicide rates for people aged 44 and younger were highest among American Indian or Alaska Native people; for those aged 45 and older, rates were highest among White people. Firearm deaths are preventable. A comprehensive approach based on the best available evidence is needed to address physical, social, economic, and structural conditions known to increase firearm homicide and suicide risks.
  • Coagulopathy Associated with Brodifacoum Poisoning — Florida, December 2021
    In December 2021, the Florida Department of Health in Hillsborough County was notified of three patients with unexplained bleeding and a history of synthetic cannabinoid use. A total of 52 cases were identified. Timely communication to local health care providers and the general public allowed for additional patient identification and the opportunity to connect them all to medical care.
    On December 4, 2021, The Florida Department of Health was notified by the Florida Poison Information Center of Tampa of a few patients presenting to the emergency department with unexplained bleeding and a history of synthetic cannabinoid (SCB) use. Investigators identified 52 patients with unexplained bleeding with an unclear cause, including four who died. Forty-seven (87%) reported using SCBs before symptom onset. Five patients provided samples of synthetic cannabinoids; four of the samples tested positive for brodifacoum, an anti-coagulant often used in rat poison. Twelve patients were enrolled in a local managed care program and all 52 patients received vitamin K1 tablets for treatment.



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