MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, September 16, 2022
- Suicides Among American Indian or Alaska Native Persons — National Violent Death Reporting System, 2015–2020
- Pediatric Brain Abscesses, Epidural Empyemas, and Subdural Empyemas Associated with Streptococcus Species — United States, January 2016–August 2022
- Use of 15-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Among U.S. Children: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2022
- Mortality Risk Among Patients Hospitalized Primarily for COVID-19 During the Omicron and Delta Variant Pandemic Periods — United States, April 2020–June 2022
- Previously Released: Clinical Use of Tecovirimat (Tpoxx) for Treatment of Monkeypox Under an Investigational New Drug Protocol — United States, May–August 2022
- Notes from the Field
- Quick Stats
Suicides Among American Indian or Alaska Native Persons — National Violent Death Reporting System, 2015–2020
CDC Media Relations
A new CDC study shows differences in circumstances contributing to suicide among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people compared to non-AI/AN people. CDC analyzed data from the National Violent Death Reporting System for a range of characteristics and circumstances preceding suicide among AI/AN and non-AI/AN people between 2015-2020. AI/AN people were more likely to experience relationship problems and substance use and less likely to have known mental health conditions and any history of mental health or substance use treatment. A comprehensive public health approach to suicide prevention, with attention to culturally relevant strategies that reduce health inequities among AI/AN persons, is essential.
Pediatric Brain Abscesses, Epidural Empyemas, and Subdural Empyemas Associated with Streptococcus Species — United States, January 2016–August 2022
CDC Media Relations
After clinicians raised concerns about a possible increase in pediatric intracranial infections, analyses of hospitalizations from 40 children’s hospitals across the United States found that the number of pediatric intracranial infections in 2021 was within normal historical limits and measures of disease severity remained stable over time. Cases declined at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is possibly due to the steps, such as masking and social distancing, people were taking to limit the spread of COVID-19, which also limited the spread of other viruses and bacteria. These data also showed cases began increasing in summer 2021 and continued through March 2022. However, the number of cases in 2021 was not more than what would have been expected based on past patterns of disease. In addition, the cases were not more serious, deadly, or resistant to antibiotics than cases prior to the pandemic. Cases began declining in April 2022 and have returned to levels expected for this time of year. CDC will continue to work with investigation partners to monitor ongoing trends in pediatric brain abscesses and empyemas.
Use of 15-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Among U.S. Children: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2022
CDC Media Relations
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) now recommends the 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15) as an option (in addition to PCV13) for vaccination against pneumococcal disease in children and adolescents younger than 19 years old. Using PCV15 as an alternative to PCV13 is expected to further reduce new cases of pneumococcal disease in children and adolescents. In June 2022, ACIP recommended the use of PCV15 as an option for pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of children younger than 19 years old. PCV15 as an option for pneumococcal conjugate vaccination is expected to reduce pneumococcal disease incidence in children and adolescents because it includes additional disease-causing serotypes. Risk-based recommendations on the use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with certain underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of pneumococcal disease have not changed. Findings from recent trials suggest the immunogenicity (ability to produce an immune response) and safety of PCV15 are generally comparable to those of the PCV13 vaccine. The PCV15 and PCV13 vaccines are interchangeable, so health care providers should follow currently recommended PCV13 dosing and schedules.
Mortality Risk Among Patients Hospitalized Primarily for COVID-19 During the Omicron and Delta Variant Pandemic Periods — United States, April 2020–June 2022
CDC Media Relations
A new CDC study shows that the risk of death among hospitalized COVID-19 patients was substantially lower during the later period of Omicron variant predominance compared with the period of early Omicron-variant predominance. This report showed a steep decrease in the risk of death from the early period of Omicron-variant predominance to the later period of Omicron-variant predominance for nearly all patient groups, including those at highest risk for severe outcomes. Immunity from vaccines and from prior infection as well as advances in early treatment for patients at risk for severe disease likely contributed to the decrease in risk for in-hospital death. During the later-Omicron period, a larger proportion of hospitalizations and in-hospital deaths occurred among people at risk for severe illness from COVID-19 (specifically people aged 65 and older, people with disabilities, and people with three or more underlying health conditions). Vaccination, early treatment, and appropriate nonpharmaceutical interventions remain important to prevent severe COVID-19 illness and death, especially among people most at risk.
Previously Released: Clinical Use of Tecovirimat (Tpoxx) for Treatment of Monkeypox Under an Investigational New Drug Protocol — United States, May–August 2022
CDC Media Relations
- Nitazene-Related Deaths — Tennessee, 2019-2021 An increase in nitazene-involved overdoses was identified in Tennessee in 2021, highlighting the importance of raising awareness about these substances and implementing strategies to reduce harm through increased testing and surveillance. Naloxone training and distribution efforts are important to implement throughout all states as are activities to promote linkage to treatment for substance use disorders. Nitazenes are a group of powerful illicit synthetic opioids that have been linked to deaths in several states. Laboratory tests show the potency of certain nitazenes to exceed that of fentanyl while others have a similar potency. Four times as many nitazene-involved overdoses were identified in Tennessee in 2021 than in 2020, and this number could be underestimated because of low testing frequency. Nitazenes are an emerging group of highly potent psychoactive substances that are often not tested for in standard toxicology panels. Given their potency, raising awareness about nitazenes and implementing strategies to reduce harm through increased testing, surveillance, and linkage to treatment for substance use disorders are of vital importance. More data are required to better understand this emerging group of psychoactive substances in the United States.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.