MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, March 3, 2022
- Geospatial Transmission Hotspots of Recent HIV Infection in Malawi, October 2019–March 2020
- Disparities in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage Between Urban and Rural Counties — United States, December 14, 2020–January 31, 2022
- Previously Released: SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Transmission Within Households — Four U.S. Jurisdictions, November 2021–February 2022
- Previously Released: Safety Monitoring of COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Doses Among Persons Aged 12–17 Years — United States, December 9, 2021–February 20, 2022
- Previously Released: Effectiveness of COVID-19 Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19–Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Nonimmunocompromised Children and Adolescents Aged 5–17 Years — VISION Network, 10 States, April 2021–January 2022
- Notes from the Field
CDC News Media
Among people newly diagnosed with HIV, testing for recent infection – likely acquired within the last 12 months – can help identify geographic areas and subpopulations that are experiencing high levels of transmission to guide prevention and care activities. Using geospatial mapping, an analysis of Malawi’s recent HIV infection data identified three locations where HIV transmission was higher than expected. These near real-time HIV surveillance data highlight locations where HIV program partners can assess program gaps and improve access to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment services. These findings should be used with other HIV program information to strengthen services and interrupt transmission.
Disparities in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage Between Urban and Rural Counties — United States, December 14, 2020–January 31, 2022
CDC News Media
A new CDC report shows that a lower percentage of people living in rural areas have received COVID-19 vaccines compared to people living in urban areas – and these disparities have more than doubled since April 2021. The largest difference in vaccination coverage occurred among children and adolescents. Addressing barriers to vaccination in rural areas is critical to help achieve vaccine equity, reduce disparities, and decrease COVID-19 related illness and death in the United States. To better understand COVID-19 vaccination disparities between urban and rural populations, CDC analyzed county-level vaccine data among people ages 5 years and older who received either their first dose of an mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine or a single dose of Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, between December 14, 2020, and January 31, 2022, first-dose vaccination coverage was lower in rural counties (59%) than urban counties (75%), with similar patterns across age groups and sex. The largest difference in vaccination coverage could be seen among younger age groups: 15% of children ages 5–11 years were vaccinated in rural areas, compared with 31% in urban areas; and 39% of adolescents ages 12–17 years were vaccinated in rural areas, compared with 65% in urban areas. More efforts are needed to improve vaccine access and confidence in rural areas.
Previously Released: SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Transmission Within Households — Four U.S. Jurisdictions, November 2021–February 2022
CDC News Media
Previously Released: Safety Monitoring of COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Doses Among Persons Aged 12–17 Years — United States, December 9, 2021–February 20, 2022
CDC News Media
Previously Released: Effectiveness of COVID-19 Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19–Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Nonimmunocompromised Children and Adolescents Aged 5–17 Years — VISION Network, 10 States, April 2021–January 2022
CDC News Media
- First Reports of Locally-Transmitted Seoul Hantavirus Infection — District of Columbia, May 2018–December 2018
In May and December 2018, the first known locally-acquired Hantavirus infections were reported to the District of Columbia (DC), brought to attention through routine notifiable disease surveillance. These cases support the need for physicians to include Hantavirus infection in their clinical workup when a patient has Hantavirus symptoms and emphasize the important role of physicians in reporting notifiable infectious disease cases to health departments. Hantaviruses are a family of rodent-borne viruses transmitted mainly through urine, feces or saliva of infected rodents. Two cases identified in May and December 2018 represent the first known locally acquired Seoul Hantavirus infections in DC, brought to attention though routine notifiable disease surveillance. Rodent overpopulation in DC is well-documented and the DC Department of Health has implemented population control and education programs to address this issue. These cases support the need for physicians to include Hantavirus infection in their clinical workup when a patient has symptoms of Hantavirus. It also emphasizes the important role of physicians in public health as they represent the frontline of reporting notifiable infectious disease cases to health departments who then initiate appropriate investigation and response activities.
- Readiness for Use of Type 2 Novel Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in Response to a Type 2 Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreak — Tajikistan, 2020–2021
In the summer of 2021, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak in Tajikistan was stopped by achieving high coverage with three rounds of novel oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (nOPV2), the first use of nOPV2 outside of the African Region. Following the identification of local transmission of circulating cVDPV2 in early 2021, Tajikistan began readiness activities to obtain verification for use of nOPV2. Following verification, in the first use of outside of the African Region, nOPV2 was administered during 3 high-quality vaccination campaigns to children aged 0–65 months in June, July and September 2021. A total of 31 cVDPV2 cases were confirmed during the outbreak with the latest onset on June 26, 2021. The Tajik Ministry of Health and Social Protection of the Population reported administrative vaccination coverage >99%. Polio is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the International Health Regulations, and any poliovirus identification requires immediate reporting and prompt response.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.