MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, February 4, 2022
- Self-Rated Physical Health Among Working-Aged Adults Along the Rural-Urban Continuum — United States, 2021
- Association Between Social Vulnerability and Rates of HIV Diagnoses Among Black Adults, by Selected Characteristics and Region of Residence — United States, 2018
- COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence by Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity — United States, August 29–October 30, 2021
- Previously Released: SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Hospitalization Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years, by Vaccination Status, Before and During SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Predominance — Los Angeles County, California, November 7, 2021–January 8, 2022
- Notes from the Field
Self-Rated Physical Health Among Working-Aged Adults Along the Rural-Urban Continuum — United States, 2021
CDC News Media
Self-rated physical health is a strong predictor of illness and death. Findings from a new survey of working-aged adults in 2021 show that adults in small cities and rural areas report worse physical health than their peers in large cities. Investigators used data from the National Well-being Survey, a national sample of over 4,000 U.S. working-aged adults conducted during February and March 2021 to examine differences in self-rated physical health among residents across rural and urban areas. Residents of small cities and rural counties had significantly higher probabilities of reporting fair/poor self-rated health than their peers in large urban counties. Much of this difference appears to be explained by differences in education and income levels. Higher education and income levels are both related to better health, but education and income levels are lower in small cities and rural areas. Policies are needed that address drivers of rural-urban health disparities, including those that increase access to livable wage jobs in small cities and rural areas, especially for those without a college degree.
Association Between Social Vulnerability and Rates of HIV Diagnoses Among Black Adults, by Selected Characteristics and Region of Residence — United States, 2018
CDC News Media
In 2018, rates of new HIV diagnoses among Black/African American adults were greatest among those living in communities with high levels of social vulnerability or social and structural factors (e.g., poverty, crowded housing) that influence health. These findings underscore the need to intensify HIV prevention efforts that address the social, economic, and health care determinants that contribute to HIV and other health disparities. A CDC analysis of 2018 HIV data and Social Vulnerability Index data found that 52% of Black/African American adults diagnosed with HIV resided in the most socially vulnerable census tracts. These areas are often residentially segregated communities, affected by a history of discriminatory practices, and comprised of predominately of Black/African American people. Black/African American adults in the most socially vulnerable census tracts were 1.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with HIV as Black/African American adults in the least socially vulnerable tracts. Factors such as poverty, inadequate health care access and use, HIV stigma, and racism all contribute to social vulnerability and make it harder to get HIV prevention and care. To reduce HIV disparities, there is a need for tailored prevention strategies that address health inequities as well as the needs and challenges of Black/African American adults in socially vulnerable communities.
COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage and Vaccine Confidence by Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity — United States, August 29–October 30, 2021
CDC News Media
Among people ages 18 and older who responded to the National Immunization Survey, a higher percentage of gay or lesbian adults received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine than heterosexual or bisexual adults. The survey also showed that higher percentages of people who identified as transgender or nonbinary thought the vaccine was very important or somewhat important to protect oneself compared with people who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. Higher percentages of gay and lesbian adults and bisexual adults reported that they thought COVID-19 vaccination was very important or somewhat important to protect oneself compared with heterosexual adults. A new analysis describes COVID-19 vaccine coverage and confidence among adults by sexual orientation and gender identity in the United States from August 29–October 30, 2021. The National Immunization Survey–Adult COVID Module asked adults about their sexual orientation and gender identity, vaccination status, and the importance of COVID-19 vaccines. They found a higher percentage of gay and lesbian adults received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine than did heterosexual or bisexual adults. Higher percentages of gay, lesbian, and bisexual people thought the vaccine was very or somewhat important for protection from the virus compared with heterosexual people. Higher percentages of people who identified as transgender or nonbinary thought the vaccine was very or somewhat important for protection compared with those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. The report also found that non-Hispanic Black women who were gay or lesbian or bisexual had lower vaccination rates than non-Hispanic Black women who were heterosexual. Understanding COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence among LGBTQIA+ populations and identifying the conditions under which disparities exist can help tailor local efforts to increase vaccination coverage.
Previously Released: SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Hospitalization Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years, by Vaccination Status, Before and During SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) Variant Predominance — Los Angeles County, California, November 7, 2021–January 8, 2022
CDC News Media
- COVID-19 Vaccination Among Persons Living with Diagnosed HIV Infection – New York, October 2021
A study of New York adults from October 2021 found the rate of COVID-19 vaccination among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was lower than that of the overall adult population in the state. COVID-19 vaccination coverage was also lower among those with HIV not receiving care and those who were not virally suppressed (having detectable levels of HIV in their blood). Among all people living with HIV, about 1 in 3 had not received any vaccine. CDC recommends people with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV, be up to date on their COVID-19 vaccinations. People with advanced or untreated HIV should may need an additional primary dose and should get a booster dose, when eligible. Researchers found lower COVID-19 vaccination coverage among New York adults ages 18 years and older with HIV than among the general adult population. Among those with HIV, coverage was lower in women, non-Hispanic Black people, American Indian/Alaska Native people, those who are not virally suppressed (having detectable levels of HIV in their blood), and people not receiving HIV care. Interventions are needed to help people with HIV get vaccinated and stay up to date on COVID-19 vaccines.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICESexternal icon
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.