MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, January 7, 2022
- Surveillance Summary: Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years — United States, 2015–2019
- Adults Meeting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Recommendations — United States, 2019
- Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking During Pregnancy Among Adults Aged 18–49 Years — United States, 2018–2020
- Firearm Homicides and Suicides in Major Metropolitan Areas — United States, 2015–2016 and 2018–2019
- Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19 Outcomes Among Persons Aged ≥18 Years Who Completed a Primary COVID-19 Vaccination Series — 465 Health Care Facilities, United States, December 2020–October 2021
- Previously Released: Receipt of COVID-19 Vaccine During Pregnancy and Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age at Birth — Eight Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 15, 2020–July 22, 2021
- Notes from the Field
Surveillance Summary: Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years — United States, 2015–2019
CDC News Media
During 2015–2019, an estimated annual average of 10.6 million adults in the United States (4.3% of the adult population) reported having had suicidal thoughts in the past year; an estimated 3.1 million adults (1.3% of the adult population) had made a suicide plan in the past year; and an estimated annual average of 1.4 million adults (0.6% of the adult population) reported they made a suicide attempt in the past year. This report, using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), highlights estimates of suicidal thoughts, plans to attempt suicide, and attempted suicide among adults during the 12 months preceding the survey at the national, regional, and state levels during 2015–2019. Suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and suicide attempts in the past year were higher among females than among males, higher among adults aged 18–39 years than among those aged 40 years or older, higher among noncollege graduates than college graduates, and higher among adults who had never been married than among those who were married, separated, divorced, or widowed. Additional estimates are presented in the report by region, state, and additional sociodemographic factors (such as income and health insurance status). Understanding the patterns of and risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors is essential for designing, implementing, and evaluating public health programs for suicide prevention and policies.
CDC News Media
In 2019, fruit and vegetable intake among American adults remained low, with only about 1 in 10 adults meeting recommendations for intake of fruits or vegetables. There were also differences by state, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty-to-income ratio. Overall, 12.3% of adults met fruit intake recommendations, ranging from 8.4% in West Virginia to 16.1% in Connecticut, and 10.0% met vegetable intake recommendations, ranging from 5.6% in Kentucky to 16.0% in Vermont. Meeting fruit intake recommendations was lowest overall among males (10.1%), those ages 18-30 (10.2%), non-Hispanic white adults (11.1%), and adults living in middle-income households (10.9%). Overall, meeting vegetable intake recommendation was lowest among males (7.6%), those aged 18–30 (7.1%), non-Hispanic Black adults (6.9%), and adults living in the lowest income households (6.8%). States can use this information to tailor efforts to support high-risk populations (e.g., young adults and lower-income households) and to implement policies and programs that help people consume more fruits and vegetables as part of a healthy diet. A healthy diet supports immune function and helps prevent numerous chronic diseases.
Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking During Pregnancy Among Adults Aged 18–49 Years — United States, 2018–2020
CDC News Media
Alcohol use during pregnancy continues to be a serious public health problem in the United States. Between 2018-2020, nearly 1 in 7 pregnant people reported drinking alcohol and about 1 in 20 reported binge drinking in the past 30 days. Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause birth defects and developmental disabilities known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and might increase the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth. Current and binge drinking increased by approximately 2 percentage points in 2018–2020 estimates compared with estimates from the previous three-year period, consistent with an upward trend observed since 2011. A new finding in this report is that pregnant people who experienced frequent mental distress and those who did not have a usual health care provider were more likely to report drinking alcohol. Screening for alcohol use, combined with brief counseling by primary care providers, integration of mental health services, improved access to care, and community-based interventions, might reduce alcohol use during pregnancy and the risk for poor pregnancy and birth outcomes.
CDC News Media
In 2015-2016 and 2018-2019 rates of firearm homicide in large metro areas were comparable to those seen a decade earlier in 2006-2007, reversing a sustained downward trend. During this same period, overall firearm suicide rates continued to increase in large metro areas. There is a continued and urgent need for comprehensive firearm homicide and suicide prevention efforts. Firearm homicides and suicides represent an ongoing public health concern in the United States. After 2006–2007, firearm homicide rates among people of all ages had decreased in large metropolitan areas collectively and nationally. By 2015–2016 rates had returned to levels comparable to those observed in 2006-2007 and remained nearly unchanged as of 2018–2019. During this same period, overall firearm suicide rates among people ages 10 years and older have continued to increase in large metro areas collectively as well as nationally. There is a continued and urgent need for comprehensive firearm homicide and suicide prevention efforts.
Risk Factors for Severe COVID-19 Outcomes Among Persons Aged ≥18 Years Who Completed a Primary COVID-19 Vaccination Series — 465 Health Care Facilities, United States, December 2020–October 2021
CDC News Media
A recent study of a U.S. health care database found that severe COVID-19-associated outcomes and deaths were rare among adults who were fully vaccinated. Odds of severe outcomes were higher among those who were ages 65 years and older, immunocompromised, or who had other underlying conditions. Data from a large U.S. health care database were analyzed to assess the frequency of and risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes among adults who completed a primary vaccination series, defined as 14 or more days after receiving a second dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) or one dose of the Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Severe COVID-19-associated outcomes (18 per 10,000 vaccinated people) and death (1.5 per 10,000 vaccinated people) were rare after primary vaccination. Risk factors for severe outcomes included older age (65 years and older), immune compromise, or presence of any of six other underlying conditions. All people with severe COVID-19 outcomes after primary vaccination had at least one risk factor and 78% of those who died had four or more risk factors. People who are at risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes after primary vaccination should talk to their doctor about managing their chronic health conditions, continue to wear a mask and practice social distancing, get additional vaccine doses, and be given effective pharmaceutical therapy as needed.
Previously Released: Receipt of COVID-19 Vaccine During Pregnancy and Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age at Birth — Eight Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 15, 2020–July 22, 2021
CDC News Media
- Three Human Rabies Deaths Attributed to Bat Exposures — United States, August 2021Bats can spread rabies to people, and there was an increase in human cases in 2021. People can protect themselves by avoiding contact with bats and seeking bat testing and medical evaluation when contact does occur. This report aims to raise awareness about rabies and the risk that bats can pose to people, as well as actions people can take to protect themselves from rabies. The number of human rabies cases and deaths in the United States due to contact with bats has been higher in 2021 on average than in previous years. From September to November 2021, three people developed rabies after close contact with bats in or around their homes. None of them received post-exposure prophylaxis after their exposure, and all three people died. People should avoid contact with bats and understand what steps to take to protect themselves if they encounter a bat. Anyone who comes into contact with a bat, or has possible contact with a bat, should call their state or local health department or animal control to help safely trap the bat for testing and contact their doctor or public health official to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis may be needed.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.