MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, May 1, 2020
- Preliminary Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2016–2019
- Progress Toward Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination — Worldwide, 2000–2018
- Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prevalence in Homeless Shelters — Four U.S. Cities, March 27–April 15, 2020 (Early Release April 22, 2020)
- COVID-19 Outbreak Among Three Affiliated Homeless Service Sites — King County, Washington, 2020 (Early Release April 22, 2020)
- Notes from the Field
Preliminary Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2016–2019
CDC Media Relations
Preliminary data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) suggest progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. FoodNet conducts surveillance in 15% of the U.S. population for infections caused by pathogens transmitted commonly through food. During 2019 compared with 2016–2018 the incidence of infections caused by Campylobacter, Cyclospora, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Vibrio, and Yersinia increased. The incidence of infection caused by Listeria, Salmonella, and Shigella remained unchanged. Incidence was highest for Campylobacter and Salmonella. Salmonella serotype Typhimurium has decreased in incidence, which might be related to vaccine interventions in poultry. Several factors are likely responsible for the increase in infections overall, including that more are being diagnosed by culture-independent diagnostic tests. Controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United Sates has stalled. Reducing foodborne illness will require more widespread implementation of known prevention measures and of strategies that target particular pathogens and serotypes.
Progress Toward Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination — Worldwide, 2000–2018
CDC Media Relations
Despite a reduction in tetanus-related deaths in newborns by an estimated 85% worldwide from 2000 to 2018, maternal and neonatal tetanus remains a major public health problem in 12 countries globally, with an 80%–100% case-fatality rate among neonates, especially in areas with poor immunization coverage and limited access to clean deliveries and umbilical cord care. A joint CDC/WHO article summarizes progress towards maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE), reporting a decrease in neonatal tetanus deaths from 170,829 in 2000 to 25,000 deaths in 2018. During 2000-2018, reported NT cases decreased 90%, and estimated deaths declined 85%. Despite progress, 47 million women and their babies remain unprotected against tetanus, and 49 million women remain unreached by tetanus toxin containing vaccine (TTCV). Tetanus is ever-present in the environment and cannot be eradicated. To achieve and sustain MNTE, countries must include three TTCV booster doses in immunization schedules, vaccinate pregnant women, ensure clean deliveries, and implement periodic assessments to identify areas at risk for reemergence. Innovative approaches and integration within other health activities are essential to achieve MNTE in the remaining 12 countries.
Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prevalence in Homeless Shelters — Four U.S. Cities, March 27–April 15, 2020 (Early Release April 22, 2020)
COVID-19 Outbreak Among Three Affiliated Homeless Service Sites — King County, Washington, 2020 (Early Release April 22, 2020)
A 2018 cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe underscored the importance of community wide water, sanitation and hygiene interventions, as well as vaccination and outbreak detection in reducing cholera’s impact. In recent years, outbreaks of cholera have been reported almost annually in Zimbabwe. An outbreak first reported in September 2018 resulted in 10,730 cases and 69 deaths from 9 of 10 provinces. After the outbreak was officially declared, response efforts were led by the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) in partnership with the City of Harare, the World Health Organization (WHO), and many local and international organizations. Outbreak response efforts included enhancing surveillance and reporting systems, increasing laboratory capacity, developing community-wide water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions, and implementing a vaccination campaign that administered more than 1.2 million doses. These measures were successful in helping to control the outbreak and the last reported case occurred in March 2019. The timely declaration of this outbreak proved crucial to early response activities and resource mobilization. Effective cholera outbreak response relies on collaboration among partners to systematically address the critical response pillars.
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