MMWR News Synopsis
Thursday, April 9, 2020
- Prevalence of Self-Reported Hypertension and Antihypertensive Medication Use Among Adults ― United States, 2017
- Vital Signs: Newly Reported Acute and Chronic Hepatitis C ― United States, 2009–2018
- Updated Recommendations for the Use of Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection
- CDC Recommendations for Hepatitis C Screening Among Adults — United States, 2020
- Notes from the Field
Prevalence of Self-Reported Hypertension and Antihypertensive Medication Use Among Adults ― United States, 2017
CDC Media Relations
In the United States, 82 million adults (1 in 3) report having hypertension. Among these adults, 62 million (3 in 4) use antihypertensive medication. There is great variability in hypertension prevalence by state with the highest prevalence in the Southeastern and Appalachian states. This report provides the most recent state survey data on prevalence of self-reported hypertension and antihypertensive medication use, which informs CDC’s initiatives to enhance hypertension awareness, treatment, and control across all states. Groups with the highest hypertension prevalence include those with lower education and household income, men, and blacks. Groups with the highest antihypertensive medication use prevalence included women and blacks.
CDC Media Relations
New data show chronic hepatitis C infection rates are high across multiple generations. This finding supports CDC’s new recommendation for hepatitis C testing for all adults once in their lifetime and for pregnant women during every pregnancy. Previously, hepatitis C was primarily a concern for the baby-boomer generation, as well as for people with risk factors such as injection drug use. New data reveal how all adults are being impacted by hepatitis C. The number of millennials (people born 1981–1996) diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C in 2018 was equal to the number of baby boomers (people born 1945–1965) diagnosed that year. Additionally, the data show that members of Generation X (people born 1966–1980) are heavily impacted by the infection as well. High rates of hepatitis C among people of reproductive age also put the very youngest at risk of infection, as hepatitis C can be transmitted from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth.
CDC Media Relations
Women at high risk for HIV are eligible to use all hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices. CDC is updating recommendations on contraceptive use by women at high risk for HIV, based on new scientific evidence and the World Health Organization’s similarly revised recommendations. Progestin-only injectable contraception (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) and intrauterine devices (including levonorgestrel-releasing and copper-bearing) are now recommended as U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria category 1 (safe without restriction); they had previously been recommended as category 2 (advantages outweigh risks). Recommendations for other hormonal contraceptive methods (including combined hormonal methods, implants, and progestin-only pills) remain the same; there is no restriction for their use among women at high risk for HIV infection. Recommended HIV infection prevention measures, including preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis, limiting number of sexual partners, and correct and consistent use of condoms, should be strongly encouraged among all women at high risk for HIV acquisition and should be integrated into family planning services.
CDC Media Relations
CDC now recommends one-time hepatitis C screening for all adults 18 years and older, as well as screening of all pregnant women during every pregnancy. Due to the changing epidemiology of hepatitis C in the United States, CDC has updated the screening recommendations:
- Hepatitis C screening at least once in a lifetime for all adults ages 18 years and older, except in settings where the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is less than 0.1%.
- Hepatitis C screening for all pregnant women during each pregnancy, except in settings where the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection is less than 0.1%.
- Unchanged is the recommendation for hepatitis C testing that remains unchanged is testing for all people with risk factors (such as injection drug use) – regardless of age or setting prevalence – with periodic testing while risk factors persist.
Any person who requests hepatitis C testing should receive it, regardless of disclosure of risk, because many people may be reluctant to disclose stigmatizing risks.
Public Information Officer, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare
Office phone: 208-334-0668
Vigilant public health surveillance is important to identify patients that may be transmitting newly emerging infections, such as a rarely identified and reported seasonal human influenza A reassortant infection detected in Idaho. In 2019, a new seasonal human influenza A(H3N2) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 reassortant infection was identified in an Idaho resident. Further investigation determined that the infected patient was treated and recovered, and spread was limited to one close contact. This is the first detection of this type of seasonal human influenza A(H3N2) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 reassortment by CDC. A biologically successful human influenza A reassortant virus is rarely described in the literature but informs scientific understanding of influenza evolution. CDC recommends that state and local health departments, hospitals, and clinicians maintain surveillance to identify patients that may be transmitting newly emerging influenza viruses. CDC will continue virologic surveillance to monitor influenza genetic evolution and inform vaccine strain selection.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.