MMWR News Synopsis

Friday, January 24, 2020

Suicide Rates by Industry and Occupation — National Violent Death Reporting System, 32 States, 2016

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

Industry, labor, and professional associations, as well as employers and state and local health departments all have a role to play in preventing suicide. CDC assessed suicide rates for all major civilian industry and occupational groups as well as for detailed occupational groups. The major industry groups with the highest rates of suicide by sex were Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction (males) and Transportation and Warehousing (females), while the major occupational group with the highest rate was Construction and Extraction among both males and females. Suicide prevention strategies can be found in CDC’s Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices. Help is available at the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (https://suicidepreventionlifeline.org/external icon, 1-800-273-TALK [8255]). Media can help by following suicide reporting recommendations.

Trends in HIV-2 Diagnoses and Use of the HIV-1/HIV-2 Differentiation Test — United States, 2010–2017

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

Diagnoses of HIV-2 remain low in the United States, and the current HIV testing approach could be updated to streamline efficiencies. For treatment purposes it remains important to correctly identify HIV-2 infection. Since 2014, a supplemental laboratory test has been recommended to differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnoses. CDC analyzed national HIV data from 2010-2017 to describe the percent of HIV diagnoses for which a differentiation test result was reported and to categorize HIV type. A substantial increase in the number of differentiation test results was reported, consistent with implementation of an HIV testing approach recommended in 2014. More than 99.9% of infections were categorized as HIV-1. CDC recommends laboratories continue to implement the differentiation test. However, updates to laboratory recommendations for diagnosing HIV merit consideration because HIV-2 diagnoses remain rare in the United States.

Population-Based Surveillance for Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection — 22 States and Territories, January 2016–June 2017

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

The prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus increased four-fold in areas with widespread local transmission of Zika virus. Birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy increased four-fold in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, areas with widespread local transmission of Zika virus during the study period, this CDC report shows that the peak of the increase in birth defects potentially related to Zika occurred in February 2017, about 6 months after the peak of the Zika virus outbreak in the territories with widespread local transmission. Areas with limited local transmission of Zika virus also showed an increase in prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika after peak transmission, but the increase was not significant. These findings underscore the importance of identifying infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus and providing critical information for states to plan for services.

Variation in Tdap and Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women by Insurance Type — Florida, 2016–2018

University of Florida Media Relations
Rossana Passaniti: 352-273-8569
Doug Bennett: 352-273-5706
dougbennett@ufl.edu

Vaccinations during pregnancy keep pregnant women and their infants safe.  Barriers to receiving vaccines, such as lack of insurance coverage, should be removed. Infants are at increased risk for pertussis-associated disease and even death, and pregnant women and their infants are more likely to experience severe illness if they get influenza (“flu”). The tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) and influenza vaccines during pregnancy reduce the risk of illness in mothers and their babies. In this study, as in other studies, women who receive Medicaid had lower rates of vaccination for both Tdap and flu vaccines during pregnancy. However, when a hospital offered these vaccines for free to women after their children were born, Tdap vaccination rates of Medicaid-insured women increased from 13% during pregnancy to 51% during the period immediately after birth. This suggests that Medicaid-insured women might receive Tdap and flu vaccines as recommended during pregnancy if cost barriers were removed.

Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Updated Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2019

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

Allowing either Tdap (tetanus/diphtheria/acellular pertussis) or Td (tetanus/diphtheria) vaccines to be used in situations where Td only was previously recommended increases provider point-of-care increased flexibility. ACIP recommendations have been updated to allow the use of Tdap in situations where only Td was previously recommended. These situations include the tetanus booster recommended for adults every 10 years, tetanus prophylaxis when indicated for wound management in people who previously received Tdap, and for multiple doses in the catch-up immunization schedule for people aged ≥7 years with an unknown or incomplete vaccination history.

Characteristics of Persons Who Report Using Only Nicotine-Containing Products Among Interviewed Patients with E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use–Associated Lung Injury — Illinois, August–December 2019

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

Update: Characteristics of a Nationwide Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use–Associated Lung Injury — United States, August 2019–January 2020

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

###

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICESexternal icon

CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.

Page last reviewed: January 23, 2020