MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, January 10, 2020
- Neural Tube Defects in Pregnancies Among Women with Diagnosed HIV Infection — 15 Jurisdictions, 2013–2017
- Candida auris Isolates Resistant to Three Classes of Antifungal Medications — New York, 2019
- Population Movement Patterns Among the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda During an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Results from Community Engagement in Two Districts — Uganda, March 2019
- Case Definitions Used During the First 6 Months of the 10th Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo — Four Neighboring Countries, August 2018–February 2019
Neural Tube Defects in Pregnancies Among Women with Diagnosed HIV Infection — 15 Jurisdictions, 2013–2017
CDC Media Relations
The risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among children born to women diagnosed with HIV is similar to that of newborns in the general U.S. population. Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/AIDS and birth defects in state health departments. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. In the current project, researchers linked data from these two programs to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013–2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. This project underscores the importance of consistent data collection across systems, which facilitates exploration of key questions among different populations and health conditions. CDC and its partners will continue to collect information on mothers and babies affected by HIV during pregnancy to understand if any specific treatments are associated with birth defects.
CDC Media Relations
Although rare, Candida auris resistant to all three classes of commonly used antifungal drugs was identified in three patients in New York. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers C. auris an urgent threat, the highest category of concern. Since its identification more than three years ago, Candida auris, an emerging fungal pathogen, has become a great concern for healthcare facilities such as hospitals and nursing homes. The CDC added it to the list of Urgent Threats in the agency’s 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report. With laboratory support from CDC, New York State’s Wadsworth Center laboratory identified three patients in New York who had strains of C. auris that none of the usual antifungal drugs could kill. As is typical for C. auris, the patients were all older adults with multiple medical conditions, including breathing problems requiring mechanical ventilation. The resistant infections have not been found to spread to other patients. Pan-resistant C. auris is rare in the United States; however, CDC continued surveillance, prudent antifungal medication use, and the testing of all C. auris patient isolates for resistance, especially after exposure to antifungal drugs.
Population Movement Patterns Among the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda During an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Results from Community Engagement in Two Districts — Uganda, March 2019
CDC Media Relations
Trade and business, need for health care, visits to family, refugee support, and insecurity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) drive population movement patterns between Rwanda, Uganda, and the provinces in eastern DRC that are experiencing an Ebola outbreak. One of the ground crossing closures in Rwanda initiated in February 2019 caused significant shifts in some cross-border movement patterns leading to travel between Goma and Uganda that avoided Rwanda and passed through more insecure areas of DRC. The 10th Ebola virus disease (EVD) DRC was declared in an area with a high volume of cross-border movement. Officials in southwest Uganda identified 31 locations in their communities where people from eastern DRC visit and traced cross-border movement pathways to the EVD outbreak areas.
Case Definitions Used During the First 6 Months of the 10th Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo — Four Neighboring Countries, August 2018–February 2019
CDC Media Relations
If a disease outbreak is occurring near international borders, harmonizing case definitions between neighboring countries can be vital to effective cross-border communication and collaboration. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is experiencing its 10th Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in an area with a high volume of cross-border population movement. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda priority countries for Ebola preparedness because of the high risk of cross-border spread. The CDC worked with ministries of health in DRC, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda to collect each ministry-of-health-approved EVD case definition during the first six months of the outbreak to evaluate the similarities and differences across countries. Case definitions are used to identify people who might have a particular disease based on signs and symptoms of illness, exposure history, and laboratory test results. Harmonizing case definitions across neighboring countries can improve collaboration and help reduce the risk of cross-border disease spread.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.