MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, November 15, 2019
- Tobacco Product Use and Cessation Indicators Among Adults — United States, 2018
- Disparities in Receipt of Eye Exams Among Medicare Part B Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries with Diabetes — United States, 2017
- Update on Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks — Worldwide, January 2018–June 2019
- Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication — Pakistan, January 2018–September 2019
- Great American Smokeout — November 21, 2019
- Risk Factors for E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) Among Adults who Use E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products — Illinois, July–October 2019
- Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Patients in an Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use–Associated Lung Injury — 10 States, August–October 2019
CDC Media Relations
Although cigarette smoking among U.S. adults has declined considerably in recent years, nearly 1 in 7 U.S. adults still smoke cigarettes and many use other tobacco products. To assess estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults age 18 years or older, CDC, FDA, and NCI analyzed data from the 2018 National Health Interview Survey. In 2018, approximately 49 million (1 in 5) U.S. adults currently used any tobacco product, with cigarette smoking reaching an all-time low of 13.7%. Among current tobacco product users, about 84% (41.2 million) smoked combustible tobacco products and 19% (9.3 million) used two or more tobacco products. These findings highlight the importance of evidence-based, population-level strategies to accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related death and disease in the United States. These strategies include tobacco price increases, high-impact anti-tobacco mass-media campaigns, comprehensive smoke-free laws, barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and approved medications, and FDA regulation of tobacco products.
Disparities in Receipt of Eye Exams Among Medicare Part B Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries with Diabetes — United States, 2017
CDC Media Relations
Nearly half of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes did not receive the recommended annual dilated eye exam. Early detection and timely treatment of diabetic eye diseases can prevent irreversible vision loss. CDC researchers found that 46% of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes did not receive a dilated eye exam in the last year, as CDC and other leading health organizations recommend. In seven states and Puerto Rico, fewer than half of Medicare beneficiaries met the recommendation. People with diabetes are at increased risk for eye diseases including diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of blindness in working-age Americans. Among the Medicare population, researchers also noted disparities in Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and younger beneficiaries, who were less likely to have received an annual eye exam in the last year.
CDC Media Relations
Stopping current outbreaks and limiting the risk of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) emergence requires increasing assistance to type-2-circulating VDPV outbreak countries; using a novel, stabilized monovalent type 2 oral polio virus in the future; maintaining high population immunity in all countries; and ending all live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine use after certification of polio eradication. In under-immunized populations, strains of poliovirus in oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) can circulate and mutate to behave like wild poliovirus, leading to outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis. During January 2018–June 2019, the number of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks increased from nine to 29 during January 2017–June 2018. Of these, 86% were caused by cVDPV type 2 that occurred both inside and outside monovalent type 2 OPV outbreak response areas. Global OPV immunization after April 2016 only contained types 1 and 3 strains.
CDC Media Relations
Despite earlier progress, interruption of wild polio virus type 1 (WPV1) circulation in Pakistan failed in 2018-2019. Pakistan’s polio program has identified key gaps to address, including multiple managerial and operational challenges and reversing negative community perceptions of polio vaccination. Stopping WPV1 transmission in Pakistan will require sustained, quality implementation of eradication activities with a renewed sense of urgency.
Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries that continue to confirm ongoing wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission. Despite reporting 12 cases in 2018, an increase to 80 cases as of Nov. 2019 shows that polio eradication efforts in Pakistan failed to interrupt transmission. The Pakistan Polio Eradication program has identified key gaps that need to be addressed, and national leadership has committed to making transformative changes. Pakistan’s program management, supervision and oversight in core transmission areas must be strengthened to support vaccination efforts and allow access to chronically missed children. Fully engaging communities and addressing resistance to vaccination will help rebuild trust and restore progress toward WPV1 elimination in Pakistan. WPV1 transmission can be interrupted in Pakistan, but it will require full and rapid implementation of recommendations.
Risk Factors for E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use Associated Lung Injury (EVALI) Among Adults who Use E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Products — Illinois, July–October 2019
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